The importance of identifying and providing safe physical care routines for babies/toddlers

Pwysigrwydd nodi a darparu arferion gofal corfforol diogel i fabanod a phlant bach

Child brushing teeth

Childcare workers understand how to identify and provide safe physical care routines in relation to babies and toddlers. Physical care routines include the following:

  • nappy changing/going to the toilet
  • hand washing
  • oral care
  • skin care (including the skin around the nappy)
  • opportunities for rest, quiet time or sleep
  • appropriate provision for exposure to sunlight and low temperatures.

The needs of babies and toddlers must be met, and it must be remembered that babies are completely reliant on adults to do this. We have previously studied how to support the physical care routines of children in Level 2 Core. Although some needs are common to all babies, the way in which these needs are met will have to be adapted due to the following:

  • some babies will feed well and will quickly get into the feeding routine and others will be very inconsistent with their feeding routine
  • some babies will be comfortable and sleep well and others will take more time to become used to a sleeping pattern
  • some babies will cry a lot and this is a way to say they are uncomfortable or that they need something.

Whatever their needs, close attention should be given to each baby/toddler and flexibility is required. They will experience periods of regular change with regard to feeding, sleeping, starting to use the toilet and starting to develop independence skills. Each baby/toddler has the right to be respected and this must be considered when meeting their needs. They should be given as much privacy as possible, depending on the age and the needs of the individual. For example, a 2 year old child should be able to shut the toilet door, with the childcare workers staying nearby to offer support if required. The parent/carer will be mainly responsible for meeting the physical needs of their baby/toddler and childcare workers have a specific role to play to ensure continuity with regard to this care within settings. No disposable items, such as nappies and gloves, should ever be used more than once.

Nappy changing and going to the toilet

They will need to learn how to change a nappy and this may be done by observing a competent individual. There are a variety of nappies available on the market and childcare workers will need to be familiar with the different types and respect the wishes of each family. Although most families now use disposable nappies, some use cloth nappies and therefore childcare workers will need to learn how to soak and wash these nappies correctly. As the baby stops wearing nappies, they will start to practice potty/toilet skills. This is an important step in developing independence. There is no specific age when toddlers should start this practice, and they should not be rushed. Forcing a child to use the toilet too early may lead to a complete refusal to engage with the practice. Patience is required to allow the child to develop the skill in their own time. Although a 12-18 month old toddler may know that they have wet themselves, they need to be mature enough to understand when they need to go to the toilet. This will depend on each individual child. Toddlers should be respected whilst developing this skill.

Hand washing

Although babies will not be able to wash their hands until they are a bit older, childcare workers need to wash their hands for them so that they can see from an early age that there is a reason for doing so. The childcare worker may speak to the baby whilst doing so, e.g. “let me wash your hands before you have food”. Correct hand washing is a skill that toddlers need to learn. Children should be encouraged to do so and supervised so that they become accustomed to washing their hands after/before specific activities, e.g. after going to the toilet, after playing in the sand, before eating. Childcare workers are responsible for ensuring that toddlers learn to do so and do so regularly each day.

Oral care

Babies will teethe at different times and at different rates and the childcare worker will need to understand babies' requirements at these times. Some children will cut their teeth without any trouble, but others will experience discomfort. The child can be comforted by giving them a hug, rubbing and massaging the gums with a finger (ensuring that it is clean), or giving them a teething ring to bite on. In order to care for the mouth and ensure that no infections spread, children must adopt the practice of brushing their teeth. A baby can be given a toothbrush, well before their first teeth appear in order to become used to holding a brush and understand its function. If the parent/carer uses this routine at home, it will be easier for the childcare worker to introduce 'Designed to Smile'. This scheme gives toddlers the opportunity to brush their teeth together in a relaxed atmosphere, under the supervision of a childcare worker. It is important that the adult supervises the children whilst they brush their teeth in order to avoid bad habits. Although toddlers are included in 'Designed to Smile', this does not mean that they do not need to brush their teeth twice a day at home. It is not always possible to brush teeth after each meal, but it is important to encourage this after the last meal of the day. It is good practice to offer babies/toddlers opportunities to watch adults and other children brushing their teeth. Good dental and gum hygiene to prevent tooth decay requires a healthy diet that avoids too many sugary drinks. Visiting the dentist regularly is also good practice in terms of dental hygiene and also helps to prevent the spread of infection.

If a baby is tired or feeling unwell, a dummy may be offered for comfort. The use of dummies can cause infection as bacteria can collect on them and quickly multiply. They therefore need to be sterilised regularly. The dummy should not be cleaned by putting it in the mouth; this can transmit bacteria to the baby's mouth. It is important not to rub anything sweet on dummies, such as jam or honey; this can cause tooth decay. Overuse of dummies can affect teeth growth i.e. the bite. Ideally, babies should be prevented from using a dummy after their first birthday. If the baby uses a dummy on a regular basis, the childcare worker should remove the dummy from the baby's mouth when they are trying to say something. Many sounds are formed at the front of the mouth and dummies will prevent this.

If the baby keeps the dummy in their mouth permanently, they are less likely to want to speak. The dummy should be used as a short-term solution when the baby is unwell or upset. The baby/toddler could be offered a reward for not using the dummy, e.g. it could be swapped for a toy or given to the dummy fairy! Childcare workers should use the same method with toddlers using beakers. Bacteria collects on them and quickly multiplies, so these also need to be sterilised regularly. Overusing beakers may affect dental growth and sugary drinks should not be drunk from them as they will cause tooth decay. It is good practice to introduce toddlers to plastic cups as soon as possible in order to promote healthy living and independence.

Skin care (including the skin around the nappy)

Babies are at risk of infection, therefore, careful attention needs to be paid to the skin, ensuring high standards of hygiene. It is not necessary for babies to be bathed daily as they do not undertake activities that make them dirty. However, they should be 'topped and tailed', that is the face, hands and bottom should be kept clean.

Nappies need to be changed regularly, especially when they are wet or soiled. Areas of the skin that are cause for concern should be monitored, e.g. an uncomfortable rash may develop on the skin around the nappy area and such a condition should be treated appropriately. Nappy cream should not be used unless necessary; Babies' skin tends to be dry, and baby oil should be used in the bath and massaged regularly into the dry areas in response to this.

Opportunities for rest, quiet time or sleep

The needs of babies/toddlers vary in terms of their sleeping patterns. This will depend on their age, how lively they are as well as their personal needs. Childcare workers need to meet these needs as sleep allows the body to rest and recover physically and mentally. Newborn babies spend most of their time asleep. As they grow, some babies like to have periods of rest during the day whilst others are fine without periods of rest. The childcare worker will need to allow periods of rest by offering less energetic activities such as reading a book or doing a jigsaw. Safe places must be prepared within the setting for babies and children to rest and sleep as required.

Appropriate provision for exposure to sunlight and low temperatures

Babies and toddlers need to experience being outside in different weather so that they develop healthily and become accustomed to the effect of the weather on their bodies. Children should be protected from the weather as it may affect their skin. The sun can cause skin cancer and therefore skin should be protected with sun cream. Toddlers can be encouraged to put sun cream on themselves but will need supervision as they do so. It is good practice to avoid going out in the sun when it is particularly hot, especially between 11am and 3pm. Low temperatures can affect children's skin and being outdoors for too long in low temperatures can cause frostbite. It is important that toddlers wear warm clothes; several layers of clothing with a hat covering the head, gloves on the hands and a scarf around the neck. If a childcare worker notices that a child is getting too cold, they should be taken in from the cold. Young babies should not be allowed out in extreme temperatures until they are around 6 months old.

Work should be accomplished in a way that sets, plans and maintains care routines within the setting in accordance with specific roles. Physical care routines should be based on the child's individual needs and it is essential to discuss the child's routine with the parents/carers. Giving consideration to home routines will enable the childcare worker to maintain consistency between the home and the setting. It is good practice to inform parents/carers of any changes to the child's care routines within the setting. This will lead to successful collaboration between the setting and the home. Consideration must be given to other backgrounds and cultures when setting and planning physical care routines. For example, care must be taken with the braided hair of an Afro-Caribbean child and consideration must be given to the fact that children from Muslim families need to wash under running water and take a shower instead of a bath.

The key worker system is used in some settings where the childcare workers will be responsible for looking after a specific child or a small group of children. This will enable the childcare worker to develop a close relationship with those children and to identify their needs. Parents/carers can talk to one childcare worker who has come to know their children very well. The baby/toddler will feel safer and will develop confidently with regard to undertaking physical care routines and growing independently. It is essential that parents/carers play an active part in their children's physical care routines so that they become confident in dealing with changes in their children. Parents may be referred to 'The Pregnancy Book' on Public Health Wales' website.

The role of the childcare worker is to ensure that care routines are maintained regularly with the aim of keeping children safe and healthy, and to encourage them to develop independently. There are specific policies for certain physical care routines and childcare workers are required to read and understand these policies before undertaking any physical care activities. There is a specific policy for changing nappies and the requirements must be adhered to, ensuring that children are always shown respect and warmth. Childcare workers should be trained on the process to follow when changing nappies so that the appropriate steps are taken. Parents/carers must be aware of these policies so that they understand the reasoning and why the childcare workers cannot do what they want them to do. For example, childcare workers cannot apply sun cream to a child without permission from a parent/carer. Not all care routines have specific policies, but there are specific steps to follow in order to ensure that they are undertaken successfully. For example, childcare workers should follow and maintain specific steps in relation to how to wash hands and care for the skin. Childcare workers should understand that babies and toddlers need periods of rest. The physical care routines offered to each child in the setting will be arranged during staff meetings. Childcare workers should work in a way that supports these arrangements.

Further reading:

Mae gweithwyr gofal plant yn deall sut i nodi a darparu arferion gofal corfforol diogel i fabanod a phlant bach. Mae arferion gofal corfforol yn cynnwys y canlynol:

  • newid cewyn/defnyddio’r toiled
  • golchi dwylo
  • gofal y geg
  • gofal y croen (gan gynnwys y rhan o’r croen o gwmpas y cewyn)
  • cyfleoedd i orffwys, i gael amser tawel neu i gysgu
  • darpariaeth briodol ar gyfer dod i gysylltiad â golau haul a thymereddau isel.

Mae angen cwrdd ag anghenion babanod a phlant bach ac mae angen cofio bod babanod yn dibynnu’n llwyr ar oedolion i fedru gwneud hyn. Rydym eisoes wedi astudio sut i gefnogi arferion gofal corfforol plant yn Lefel 2 Craidd. Er bod anghenion pob baban yn gyffredin, mae’r ffordd i gwrdd â’r anghenion yn gorfod amrywio oherwydd:

  • bydd rhai yn bwydo’n dda ac yn dod i drefn bwydo’n gyflym tra bydd eraill yn anghyson iawn o ran trefn bwydo
  • bydd rhai babanod yn gysurus ac yn cysgu’n dda tra bydd eraill yn cymryd ychydig mwy o amser i gyfarwyddo â phatrwm cysgu
  • bydd rhai babanod yn crio llawer ac mae hyn yn ffordd o ddweud nad ydynt yn gyfforddus neu eu bod angen rhywbeth.

Beth bynnag yw eu hanghenion, mae angen rhoi sylw manwl i bob baban/plentyn bach ac mae angen bod yn hyblyg. Byddant yn mynd trwy gyfnod o newidiadau cyson o ran bwydo, cwsg, dechrau defnyddio’r toiled a dechrau datblygu sgiliau annibyniaeth. Mae gan bob baban/plentyn bach yr hawl i gael eu parchu ac mae’n hanfodol ystyried hyn wrth gwrdd â’u hanghenion. Mae angen rhoi gymaint â phosib o breifatrwydd iddynt ac mae hyn yn ddibynnol ar oedran ac anghenion yr unigolyn. Er enghraifft, dylai plentyn 2 oed fedru cau drws y toiled, gyda’r gweithiwr gofal plant yn aros yn agos i gynnig cymorth os bydd angen. Y rhiant/gofalwr fydd â’r cyfrifoldeb pennaf i gydymffurfio â gofal corfforol ei baban/plentyn bach ac mae gan gweithwyr gofal plant rôl benodol i sicrhau parhad o’r gofal hwn o fewn lleoliadau. Ni ddylid defnyddio eitemau tafladwy, megis cewynnau a menig, mwy nag unwaith.

Newid cewyn a defnyddio’r toiled

Mae angen dysgu sut mae newid cewyn a gellir gwneud hyn drwy wylio person cymwys. Mae yna amrywiaeth o gewynnau ar y farchnad ac mae angen cyfarwyddo â’r rhain gan barchu beth mae pob teulu/gofalwr am i’w baban ei ddefnyddio. Er bod y mwyafrif o deuluoedd/gofalwyr erbyn hyn yn defnyddio cewynnau un tro, mae rhai yn defnyddio cewynnau clwt ac felly mae angen dysgu sut mae eu trochi a’u golchi’n gywir. Wrth i’r baban rhoi’r gorau i wisgo cewyn, bydd yn dechrau ymarfer sgiliau defnyddio’r poti a/ neu’r toiled. Mae hwn yn gam pwysig ar gyfer datblygu annibyniaeth. Nid oes oed penodol y dylai plant bach ddechrau’r arfer hwn ac ni ddylid eu rhuthro i ymgyfarwyddo â'r arfer. Gall gorfodi’r plentyn i ddefnyddio’r toiled yn rhy gynnar wneud iddo wrthod yn gyfan gwbl. Mae angen bod yn amyneddgar fel eu bod yn datblygu’r sgil yn amser eu hunain. Er bod plentyn bach 12 - 18 mis efallai yn gwybod ei fod wedi gwlychu ei hun, mae angen ei fod yn ddigon aeddfed i ddeall pryd mae ganddo awydd i fynd i’r toiled. Bydd hyn yn dibynnu ar bob plentyn yn unigol. Dylid parchu plant bach wrth iddynt fynd drwy’r broses o ddatblygu’r sgil hon.

Golchi dwylo

Er na fydd babanod yn medru golchi eu dwylo tan y byddan nhw ychydig yn hŷn, mae angen i weithwyr gofal plant golchi eu dwylo iddynt fel eu bod yn dechrau gweld yn ifanc iawn bod yna reswm dros wneud hynny. Gall yr gweithiwr gofal plant siarad â’r baban wrth wneud hyn, e.e. “dere i fi gael golchi dy ddwylo cyn cael bwyd”. Mae golchi dwylo’n gywir yn sgil sydd angen i blant bach ei dysgu. Mae angen annog plant i wneud hyn a’u goruchwylio fel eu bod yn dod i arfer â golchi eu dwylo ar ôl/cyn gweithredoedd penodol, e.e. ar ôl bod yn y toiled, ar ôl chwarae yn y tywod, cyn bwyta bwyd. Mae gweithwyr gofal plant yn gyfrifol am sicrhau bod plant bach yn dysgu gwneud hyn ac yn ei wneud yn rheolaidd bob dydd.

Gofal y geg

Bydd babanod yn torri dannedd ar adegau gwahanol ac ar gyflymdra gwahanol a bydd angen i’r gweithiwr gofal plant ddeall eu gofynion yn ystod y cyfnodau hyn. Bydd rhai babanod yn torri dannedd heb unrhyw drafferth tra bod eraill yn mynd trwy gyfnodau anghysurus. Gellir cysuro’r plentyn drwy roi cwtsh iddo, rhwbio a thylino’r deintgig gyda’r bys (glân), neu roi cylch torri dant i faban gnoi arno. Er mwyn gofalu am y geg a sicrhau nad oes heintiau’n lledu, mae angen mabwysiadu’r arfer o olchi dannedd. Gellir rhoi brws dannedd i faban, ymhell cyn bod y dannedd cyntaf yn torri er mwyn cyfarwyddo â chydio mewn brws a dod i ddeall ei swyddogaeth. Os yw’r rhiant/gofalwr yn defnyddio’r drefn hon yn y cartref, mae’n gwneud rôl yr gweithiwr gofal plant wrth gyflwyno’r ‘Cynllun Gwên’ yn un haws. Mae’r cynllun hwn yn rhoi cyfle i blant bach frwsio’u dannedd gyda’i gilydd mewn awyrgylch hamddenol, dan oruchwyliaeth yr gweithiwr gofal plant. Mae’n bwysig bod yr oedolyn yn goruchwylio plant wrth iddynt olchi eu dannedd er mwyn osgoi arferion gwael. Er bod plant bach yn cael bod yn rhan o’r ‘Cynllun Gwên’ nid yw hyn yn golygu na fydd angen iddynt frwsio eu dannedd dwywaith y dydd yn y cartref. Nid yw’n bosib glanhau’r dannedd ar ôl prydau bwyd bob amser, ond mae’n bwysig i annog hyn ar ôl pryd olaf y dydd. Mae’n arfer dda i gynnig cyfleoedd i fabanod/plant bach wylio’r oedolyn a phlant eraill yn glanhau dannedd. Er mwyn cynnal hylendid da o’r dannedd a’r deintgig sy’n atal pydredd dannedd, mae angen bwyta deiet iach sy’n osgoi gormod o ddiodydd melys. Bydd ymweld â’r deintydd yn gyson hefyd yn arfer da o ran sicrhau hylendid y dannedd ac yn cyfrannu tuag at atal haint rhag lledaenu.

Os yw baban wedi blino neu’n teimlo’n anhwylus gellir cynnig dymi er mwyn ei gysuro. Mae’r defnydd o ddymïau yn gallu achosi haint gan fod bacteria yn casglu arnynt ac yn lluosi’n gyflym. Felly, mae angen diheintio’r rhain yn rheolaidd. Ni ddylid glanhau’r dymi drwy ei roi yn y geg; gall hyn drosglwyddo bacteria i geg y baban. Mae’n bwysig peidio â rhoi pethau melys ar y dymïau megis jam neu fêl; gall hyn achosi’r dannedd i bydru. Mae gorddefnydd o ddymïau yn medru effeithio ar dwf y dannedd, h.y. sut mae’r dannedd yn cwrdd â’i gilydd. Yn ddelfrydol, dylid atal y baban rhag eu defnyddio ar ôl blwydd oed. Os yw’r baban yn defnyddio dymi’n rheolaidd dylai’r gweithiwr gofal plant dynnu’r dymi allan o geg y baban pan mae’n ceisio dweud rhywbeth. Mae llawer o synau’n cael eu gwneud ar flaen y geg ac mae dymi’n atal y baban/plentyn bach rhag gwneud y synau hyn. Os bydd y baban yn cadw’r dymi yn ei geg yn barhaol, bydd yn llai tebygol o fod eisiau siarad. Dylai’r dymi gael ei ddefnyddio fel ateb tymor byr pan mae’r baban yn sâl neu’n anghysurus. Gellir cynnig gwobr i’r baban/plentyn bach am beidio â defnyddio dymi, e.e. ei gyfnewid am degan neu esgus gorfod ei roi i’r tylwyth teg sy’n gofalu ar ôl y dymïau! Yr un yw’r drefn y dylai gweithwyr gofal plant ddilyn wrth i blant bach ddefnyddio biceri. Mae bacteria’n casglu arnynt ac yn lluosi yn gyflym, felly mae angen diheintio’r rhain yn rheolaidd hefyd. Mae gorddefnydd ohonynt yn medru effeithio ar dwf y dannedd ac ni ddylid rhoi diod melys ynddynt gan y bydd yn achosi’r dannedd i bydru. Mae’n arfer dda i gyflwyno cwpan blastig i’r plentyn bach cyn gynted â phosib er mwyn hyrwyddo bywyd iach ac annibyniaeth.

Gofal y croen (gan gynnwys y rhan o’r croen o gwmpas y cewyn)

Mae babanod mewn perygl o gael haint ac felly mae angen rhoi sylw manwl i’r croen gan sicrhau safon uchel o hylendid. Nid yw’n angenrheidiol bod babanod yn cael bath bob dydd gan nad ydynt ynghlwm â gweithgareddau lle maent yn gwneud eu hunain yn fudr. Serch hyn, mae angen cadw’r ‘pen a chynffonna’ yn lân, hynny yw, yr wyneb, dwylo a phen ôl y baban. Mae angen newid y cewyn yn rheolaidd, yn enwedig pan mae’n wlyb neu’n fudr. Bydd angen cadw golwg ar fannau o’r croen a all beri gofid, e.e. gall brechau dolurus ddatblygu ar y croen o gwmpas y cewyn ac mae angen trin y cyflwr yn briodol. Ni ddylid defnyddio hufen cewyn os nad oes rhaid; Mae croen babanod yn tueddu i fod yn sych, ac mae angen darparu ar gyfer hyn drwy ddefnyddio olew baban yn y bath gan dylino mannau sych yn rheolaidd.

Cyfleoedd i orffwys, i gael amser tawel neu i gysgu

Mae anghenion babanod/plant bach yn amrywio o ran patrymau cwsg. Bydd hyn yn dibynnu ar eu hoed a pha mor fywiog ydynt yn ogystal â’u hanghenion personol. Mae angen bod gweithwyr gofal plant yn cwrdd â’r anghenion hyn gan fod cwsg yn caniatáu’r corff i orffwys gan adfer yn gorfforol a meddyliol. Bydd babanod newydd-anedig yn treulio’r rhan fwyaf o’u hamser yn cysgu. Wrth iddynt dyfu, bydd rhai babanod yn hoffi cael cyfnodau o orffwys yn ystod y dydd tra bod eraill yn iawn heb gyfnodau o orffwys. Bydd angen i’r gweithiwr gofal plant ganiatáu cyfnodau o orffwys trwy gynnig gweithgareddau llai egnïol megis darllen llyfr neu wneud jig-so. Bydd angen paratoi llefydd diogel o fewn y lleoliad i fabanod a phlant gael gorffwys a chysgu pan fod angen.

Darpariaeth briodol ar gyfer dod i gysylltiad â’r haul a thymereddau isel

Mae babanod a phlant bach angen y profiad o fod allan mewn gwahanol dywydd fel eu bod yn datblygu’n iach ac yn cyfarwyddo ag effaith y tywydd ar eu cyrff. Mae angen diogelu plant rhag y tywydd oherwydd gall effeithio ar eu croen. Gall yr haul achosi cancr y croen ac felly mae angen ei ddiogelu drwy ei orchuddio ag eli haul. Gellir annog plant bach i roi eli ar eu croen eu hunain ond bydd angen eu goruchwylio wrth iddynt wneud hyn. Mae’n arfer dda i osgoi mynd allan yn yr haul ar adegau pan fydd yn boeth ofnadwy, yn enwedig rhwng 11 y.b. a 3 y.h. Gall tymereddau isel gael effaith ar groen y plentyn ac mae bod allan am gyfnodau rhy hir mewn tymereddau isel yn gallu achosi ewinrhew (frostbite). Mae’n bwysig bod y plentyn bach yn gwisgo dillad cynnes; sawl haenen denau o ddillad gan orchuddio’r pen gyda het, y dwylo gyda menig a’r gwddf gyda sgarff. Os yw gweithiwr gofal plant yn sylwi bod y plentyn yn mynd yn rhy oer bydd rhaid dod allan o’r oerfel. Ni ddylid caniatáu baban bach i fod allan mewn tymereddau eithafol tan eu bod tua 6 mis oed.

Mae angen gweithio mewn ffordd sy’n pennu, cynllunio a chynnal arferion gofal o fewn y lleoliad yn unol â rolau penodol. Mae angen i arferion gofal corfforol gael eu seilio ar anghenion unigol y plentyn ac mae’n hanfodol trafod trefn y plentyn gyda’r rhieni/gofalwyr. Bydd cymryd sylw o arferion y cartref yn galluogi’r gweithiwr gofal plant i gynnal cysondeb rhwng y cartref a’r lleoliad. Mae’n arfer dda i hysbysu rhieni/gofalwyr os oes unrhyw newid i arferion gofal y plentyn o fewn y lleoliad. Bydd hyn yn caniatáu cydweithio llwyddiannus rhwng y lleoliad a’r cartref. Rhaid ystyried cefndiroedd a diwylliannau eraill wrth bennu a chynllunio arferion gofal corfforol.

Mae’r system gweithiwr allweddol yn cael ei ddefnyddio mewn rhai lleoliadau lle bydd yr gweithiwr gofal plant yn gyfrifol am ofalu ar ôl plentyn penodol neu grŵp o blant bach. Bydd hyn yn fodd i ddatblygu perthynas agos gyda’r plant hynny gan ddod i adnabod eu hanghenion. Mae rhieni/gofalwyr yn gallu trafod gydag un gweithiwr gofal plant sydd wedi dod i adnabod eu plant yn dda iawn. Bydd y baban/plentyn bach yn teimlo’n fwy diogel ac yn datblygu’n hyderus wrth ymgymryd ag arferion gofal corfforol a thyfu’n annibynnol. Mae’n hollbwysig bod rhieni/gofalwyr yn cymryd rhan weithredol mewn arferion gofal corfforol eu plant fel eu bod hwythau yn datblygu hyder i ddelio â newidiadau yn eu plant. Gellir cyfeirio rhieni/gofalwyr at raglen ‘naw Mis a Mwy’ ar wefan Iechyd Cyhoeddus Cymru.

Rôl yr gweithiwr gofal plant yw sicrhau bod yr arferion gofal yn cael eu cynnal yn rheolaidd a hyn gyda’r nod o gadw plant yn ddiogel ac yn iach yn ogystal â’u hannog i ddatblygu’n annibynnol. Mae polisïau penodol ar gyfer rhai arferion gofal corfforol ac mae’n ofynnol bod gweithwyr gofal plant yn eu darllen a’u deall cyn ymgymryd â gweithred gofal corfforol. Mae polisi arbennig ar gyfer newid cewyn ac mae’n rhaid cydymffurfio â’r gofynion gan sicrhau bod parch a chynhesrwydd yn cael eu rhoi i’r plant bob tro. Dylai gweithwyr gofal plant dderbyn hyfforddiant ynglŷn â’r broses i’w dilyn wrth newid cewyn fel eu bod yn dilyn y camau cywir. Mae angen bod rhieni/gofalwyr yn gwybod am y polisïau hyn fel eu bod yn deall eu rhesymeg a pham na all y gweithwyr gofal plant wneud yr hyn maen nhw angen iddynt eu gwneud. Er enghraifft, ni all gweithwyr gofal plant roi eli haul ar blentyn heb dderbyn caniatâd gan y rhieni/gofalwyr. Nid oes polisi ar gyfer yr holl arferion gofal ond mae yna gamau penodol i’w dilyn er mwyn sicrhau eu bod yn cael eu cynnal yn llwyddiannus. Er enghraifft, dylai gweithwyr gofal plant ddilyn a chynnal y camau penodol ar sut i olchi dwylo a gofalu am y croen. Mae angen deall bod angen cyfnodau o orffwys ar fabanod a phlant bach. Bydd arferion gofal corfforol a gynigir ar gyfer pob plentyn o fewn y lleoliad yn cael eu trefnu o fewn cyfarfodydd staff. Dylai gweithwyr gofal plant weithio mewn ffordd sy’n cynnal y rhain.

Darllen pellach:

Hint 1: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Modi est praesentium earum exercitationem, accusantium molestiae asperiores reiciendis aliquam doloribus, delectus, cumque odio omnis rem, aliquid et. Quisquam eius, incidunt ab.

Awgrymiadau 1: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Modi est praesentium earum exercitationem, accusantium molestiae asperiores reiciendis aliquam doloribus, delectus, cumque odio omnis rem, aliquid et. Quisquam eius, incidunt ab.

The importance of a relaxed and comfortable atmosphere to support safe physical care routines

Pwysigrwydd awyrgylch tawel a chyfforddus i gefnogi arferion gofal corfforol diogel

A child potty training

Physical care routines are integral to the daily life of babies and toddlers and it is important to support these routines by showing respect and dignity in a comfortable and relaxed environment. Babies and toddlers receive care in settings in groups and individually.

  • The childcare worker should treat babies and toddlers in a warm and caring way.
  • They need to be prepared to hug a toddler who finds it difficult to cope with unfamiliar care.
  • Children will need opportunities to speak in a quiet environment where they can be asked questions and also given the opportunity to ask questions themselves.
  • They may be accustomed to drying their hands with a towel at home and using paper towels is a new experience for them. Comfort and peace of mind will need to be given to the child during these periods of change in order to enable them to cope with physical care routines in a confident and successful manner.
  • The childcare worker must be polite with babies and toddlers at all times.

As the childcare worker enjoys the relationship that they have formed with the babies and toddlers, they will grow to trust them.

A comfortable and relaxed environment will encourage babies and toddlers to feel:

  • at home
  • safe
  • happy
  • content
  • confident
  • positive
  • emotionally secure
  • independent
  • excited
  • enthusiastic.

It will also make them feel that they are respected and valued and that they are part of the setting. It will be a positive step towards developing independence.

An awareness of the baby's needs should be developed when the baby starts at the setting and should be discussed with the parents/carers in order to identify a routine. This will help the baby to settle as soon as possible. Working methods that promote a comfortable and relaxed atmosphere whilst supporting safe physical care routines should be used. This will enable babies to feel relaxed and will increase the confidence of toddlers to develop care routines in a successful manner.

Changing nappies

Every setting will have a separate area for changing nappies and it is important to ensure that this area is hygienic at all times to prevent the spread of infection. The temperature of the area should be warm enough so that the baby feels happy and comfortable. A mobile could be placed above the baby's head in order to make the practice an enjoyable one and something that the baby looks forward to. The childcare worker may take advantage of the time used to change the nappy to have a conversation with the baby.

Going to the toilet

The child should be shown respect and dignity when starting to use the toilet and such training should be made fun. If the childcare worker became angry at the child for wetting themselves, the child would become frustrated with the training process and the process will become boring for the child. Placing a potty alongside the toilet offers the child an opportunity to sit on it as part of their play.

Rest, quiet time or sleep

There should be facilities within the setting for children to rest and sleep. Children will fall asleep if they feel safe and if the body is relaxed. They will not be able to sleep in a noisy environment that is unfamiliar to them. If the baby prefers to sleep in their pram, the pram could be brought into the setting. Comforters from home may help the baby to settle, e.g. familiar objects such as a teddy or blanket. Also, information from the parents can be useful, e.g. does the baby/toddler like several layers of blankets or not.

Toddlers need to develop an awareness of their body and this can be made fun by undertaking physical care routines that are full of excitement with the children. For example, singing songs about physical routines:

Wash, wash, wash your hands

over, under, in between

Wash, wash, wash your hands

now we are all clean.

The same format could be used for brushing teeth, combing the hair and washing the face.

It is also essential to model good physical care routines to ensure they are safe and enjoyable experiences that promote the children's holistic learning, growth and development. Developing healthily will allow the child to feel good about themselves and this will contribute to their confidence. There is a correlation between health and well-being. Good health contributes towards the child's holistic development. It encourages the child to take part in play activities individually or alongside other children, thus undertaking new experiences whilst exploring the environment. Children should be supervised when undertaking physical care routines in order to ensure high standards of hygiene.

This will prevent illnesses, increase self-respect and encourage the children to learn how to take care of themselves, thus starting the process of independent development. Work must be undertaken in a way that exemplifies good practices so that children naturally incorporate these practices within their daily routines. Physical care routines can be made enjoyable for children by including them as part of their play and their daily experiences. If the childcare worker is able to explain to the child why physical care routines are important, the child will be able to learn from these routines. Babies should be included when undertaking care routines. They can be spoken to and ways can be found to include them so that they are part of the activity. A baby can hold something whilst you change their nappy or could maybe start cleaning their face during a washing routine.

Toddlers like to imitate the actions of adults and therefore, it is essential that they adopt positive routines.

Physical care routines Modelling good practice Promoting learning, growth and development
Nappy changing
  • use a mobile to distract the baby
  • give the baby a rattle
  • give the baby something to hold, e.g. clean nappy
  • play music
  • talk with the baby
  • warm and comfortable room.
  • the baby feels involved
  • the baby feels emotionally comfortable and happy
  • support language development
  • develop an attachment to the carer
  • learn about dignity and respect.
Going to the toilet
  • allow the child to use the potty or the toilet
  • show respect by letting the child close the door
  • be at hand in case the child needs help to remove/pull up their underwear.

  • develop self-confidence
  • learn about dignity and respect
  • learn how to dress/undress
  • the colour of clothes
  • learn about the importance of hygiene
  • develop independence.
Hand washing

Encourage children to observe the following steps when washing their hands:

  1. Wet your hands with warm water.
  2. Use a liquid soap.
  3. Create a foam and rub the hands (20 seconds).
  4. Rinse (10 seconds).
  5. Dry your hands.
  6. Turn off the tap.
Remember to wash: between your fingers, under your nails and the back of your hands.
  • Display the steps on the wall in the toilets.
  • Encourage children to wash their hands before food, after going to the toilet and after taking part in messy play, e.g. playing with sand.

  • develop motor skills
  • support language development
  • interact with others
  • understand sequence and order
  • learn about the importance of hygiene
  • taking turns – they may have to wait a while if several other children are washing their hands.
Oral Care
  • encourage the use of a toothbrush at an early stage
  • role play by brushing the doll's teeth
  • visiting the dentist regularly
  • drink water between meals
  • offer a sugar-free snack.
  • develop motor skills
  • make choices, e.g. choosing a toothbrush
  • develop a good attitude towards oral hygiene
  • grow healthily
  • develop confidence and self-esteem
  • develop independence.
Skin care
  • encourage the child to wash their face independently
  • encourage the child to look in the mirror whilst washing their face
  • give the child a doll so that they can wash her face
  • sing songs
  • look for rashes or sores on the skin
  • encourage the toddler to wear clothes that are appropriate for the weather - a hat when it is sunny and warm clothes when it is cold
  • black children will need to have lotion applied to their skin regularly.
  • develop motor skills
  • learn about sequence and order
  • develop confidence and self-esteem
  • promote a healthy lifestyle
  • good attitude towards hygiene
  • learn to name parts of the body.
Rest, quiet, time and sleep
  • offer books and jigsaw puzzles for toddlers to have periods of rest
  • listen to music in quiet areas
  • quiet conversations
  • ensure suitable areas to sleep
  • ensure that the sleeping area is warm
  • read the baby/toddler a story before they go to sleep
  • be patient as the baby develops their sleeping pattern
  • remain quiet, sometimes without communicating
  • develop language skills
  • develop listening skills
  • learn that the body has to relax and sleep
  • develop the ability to relax
  • develop an enjoyment of books and music
  • enjoy with friends.

Further reading:

Mae arferion gofal corfforol yn rhan annatod o fywyd dyddiol babanod a phlant bach ac mae’n bwysig eu cefnogi drwy arddangos parch ac urddas a hynny mewn awyrgylch tawel a chyfforddus. Mae babanod a phlant bach yn derbyn gofal mewn lleoliadau grŵp ac yn unigol.

  • Dylai’r gweithiwr gofal plant arddangos sgiliau i ymdrin â babanod a phlant bach yn gynnes ac yn ofalgar.
  • Mae angen bod yn barod i roi cwtsh i blentyn bach sy’n ei gweld hi’n anodd ymdopi ag arfer gofal anghyfarwydd.
  • Bydd angen rhoi cyfle i blentyn siarad o fewn awyrgylch dawel lle gellir gofyn cwestiynau iddo a’i annog yntau i wneud yr un modd hefyd.
  • Efallai y bydd yn gyfarwydd â sychu dwylo yn y cartref gyda thywel a bod defnyddio tywelion papur yn broses newydd iddo. Bydd angen cynnig cysur a sicrwydd i blentyn yn ystod y cyfnodau yma o newid er mwyn ei alluogi i ymdopi ag arferion gofal corfforol yn hyderus a llwyddiannus.
  • Mae angen bod yn gwrtais gyda babanod a phlant bach bob amser.

Wrth i’r gweithiwr gofal plant fwynhau’r berthynas mae wedi’i sefydlu gyda’r babanod a phlant bach byddan nhw’n dod i ymddiried ynddo.

Bydd awyrgylch tawel a chyfforddus yn annog babanod a phlant bach i deimlo’n:

  • gysurus
  • diogel
  • hapus
  • bodlon
  • hyderus
  • positif
  • emosiynol ddiogel
  • annibynnol
  • cyffrous
  • brwdfrydig.

Bydd hefyd yn rhoi’r teimlad i fabanod a phlant bach eu bod yn cael eu parchu a’u gwerthfawrogi a’u bod yn rhan o’r lleoliad. Bydd yn gam positif at ddatblygu annibyniaeth.

Dylid datblygu ymwybyddiaeth o anghenion y baban pan fydd yn dechrau yn y lleoliad ac mae angen trafod gyda rhieni/gofalwyr er mwyn dod i adnabod ei drefn. Bydd hyn yn helpu iddo setlo cyn gynted â phosib. Mae angen gweithio mewn ffordd sy’n hybu awyrgylch tawel a chyfforddus wrth gefnogi arferion gofal corfforol diogel. Bydd hyn yn caniatáu babanod i deimlo’n gartrefol yn ogystal â chynyddu hyder plant bach i ddatblygu arferion gofal yn llwyddiannus.

Newid cewynnau

Bydd ardal ar wahân ar gyfer newid cewynnau ym mhob lleoliad ac mae’n bwysig ei bod yn cael ei chadw’n hylan bob amser i osgoi heintiau rhag lledu. Mae angen i dymheredd yr ardal fod yn ddigon cynnes fel gall y baban deimlo’n hapus a chyfforddus. Gellir cael mobile yn siglo uwch ben y baban er mwyn gwneud yr arfer yn un pleserus ac yn un y bydd yn edrych ymlaen ato. Gall yr gweithiwr gofal plant fanteisio ar amser newid cewyn i gynnal sgwrs gyda’r baban.

Defnyddio’r toiled

Bydd angen dangos parch ac urddas i’r plentyn wrth iddo ddechrau defnyddio’r toiled ac mae angen sicrhau bod yr hyfforddi yn hwylus. Pe byddai gweithiwr gofal plant yn ddig ar ôl i blentyn wlychu ei hun, bydd y plentyn yn mynd yn rhwystredig gyda’r broses o hyfforddi a bydd y broses yn troi’n ddiflas iddo. Bydd cynnig poti ochr yn ochr â’r toiled yn rhoi cyfle i’r plentyn eistedd arno fel rhan o’i chwarae.

Gorffwys, amser tawel neu gysgu

Dylai fod cyfleusterau o fewn y lleoliad i blant orffwys a chysgu. Bydd plant yn cwympo i gysgu os byddant yn teimlo’n ddiogel ac os yw’r corff wedi ymlacio. Ni fyddant yn medru cysgu mewn amgylchedd swnllyd sy’n anghyfarwydd iddynt. Os yw’n well gan y baban gysgu yn ei bram ei hun, gellid dod â hwnnw i mewn i’r lleoliad. Gall cysurwr o’r cartref helpu’r baban i setlo, e.e. gwrthrychau cyfarwydd megis tedi neu blanced. Hefyd, mae gwybodaeth gan y rhieni/gofalwyr yn gallu bod yn ddefnyddiol, e.e. a yw’r baban/plentyn bach yn hoffi sawl haenen o flancedi ai peidio.

Mae angen bod plant bach yn datblygu ymwybyddiaeth o’u cyrff a gellir gwneud hyn yn hwyl trwy gynnal arferion gofal corfforol sy’n llawn cyffro i’r plant. Er enghraifft, canu caneuon am arferion gofal corfforol:

Dyma’r ffordd i olchi dwylo,

golchi dwylo, golchi dwylo.

Dyma’r ffordd i olchi dwylo

yn gynnar yn y bore.

Gellir dilyn yr un fformat gyda brwsio dannedd, cribo’r gwallt a golchi’r wyneb.

Mae’n hanfodol modelu arferion gofal corfforol da fel eu bod yn brofiadau diogel a phleserus sy’n hybu dysgu, twf a datblygiad cyfannol plant. Bydd datblygu’n iach yn caniatáu’r plentyn i deimlo’n dda am ei hunain a bydd hyn yn cyfrannu at ei hyder. Mae iechyd a llesiant yn cydberthyn. Mae iechyd da yn cyfrannu tuag at ddatblygiad cyfannol y plentyn. Mae’n ei annog i gymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau chwarae yn unigol neu ochr yn ochr â phlant eraill gan dderbyn profiadau newydd wrth archwilio’r amgylchedd. Mae angen sicrhau goruchwylio plant wrth iddynt ymgymryd ag arferion gofal corfforol er mwyn sicrhau bod y safonau hylendid yn uchel. Bydd hyn yn atal afiechyd, cynyddu hunan barch ac annog y plant i ddysgu sut mae gofalu ar ôl eu hunain gan ddechrau’r broses o ddatblygu’n annibynnol. Rhaid gweithio mewn ffordd sy’n modelu arferion da fel bod plant yn eu hymgorffori yn naturiol o fewn eu trefn ddyddiol. Gellir gwneud arferion gofal corfforol yn rhai pleserus i blant wrth eu cynnwys yn eu chwarae a’u profiadau beunyddiol. Os yw’r gweithiwr gofal plant yn medru esbonio i’r plentyn pam bod arferion gofal corfforol yn bwysig, bydd posibiliadau i’r plentyn ddysgu trwy’r arferion hyn. Mae angen cynnwys babanod wrth ymgymryd ag arferion gofal. Gellir siarad â hwy a dod o hyd i ffyrdd o’u cynnwys fel eu bod yn rhan o’r weithred. Gall baban ddal rhywbeth wrth i chi newid cewyn neu efallai dechrau glanhau ei wyneb ei hun yn ystod arfer ymolchi.

Bydd plant bach yn hoffi dynwared gweithred yr oedolyn ac felly mae’n hanfodol eu bod yn arferion positif.

Arferion gofal corfforol Modelu arfer dda Hybu dysgu twf a datblygiad
Newid cewyn
  • defnyddio mobile i dynnu sylw’r baban
  • rhoi rhuglen i faban
  • rhoi adnodd i’r baban ei ddal, e.e. cewyn glan
  • chwarae cerddoriaeth
  • cyfathrebu gyda’r baban
  • ystafell gynnes a chyffyrddus.
  • baban yn teimlo’n rhan o’r broses
  • baban yn teimlo’n gysurus ac yn emosiynol hapus
  • cefnogi datblygiad iaith
  • datblygu ymlyniad gyda’r gofalwr
  • dysgu am urddas a pharch.
Defnyddio’r toiled
  • caniatáu’r plentyn i ddefnyddio’r poti neu’r toiled
  • dangos parch drwy adael i’r plentyn gau drws y toiled
  • bod yn agos rhag ofn bydd y plentyn angen cymorth wrth dynnu/ gwisgo dillad isaf.

  • datblygu hunan hyder
  • dysgu am urddas a pharch
  • dysgu gwisgo/ dadwisgo
  • lliwiau’r dillad
  • dysgu am bwysigrwydd hylendid
  • datblygu annibyniaeth.
Golchi dwylo

Hybu plant i gymryd sylw o’r camau golchi dwylo.

  1. Gwlychwch eich dwylo o dan ddŵr cynnes.
  2. Defnyddiwch sebon hylif.
  3. Gwnewch ewyn a rhwbiwch (20 eiliad).
  4. Rinsio (10 eiliad).
  5. Sychwch eich dwylo.
  6. Diffoddwch y tap.
Cofiwch olchi: rhwng eich bysedd, o dan eich ewinedd a chefn eich dwylo.
  • Arddangos y camau ar wal yn y tai bach.
  • Annog plant blant i olchi dwylo cyn bwyd, ar ôl bod yn y toiled ac ar ôl cymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau budr, e.e. chwarae gyda thywod.

  • datblygu sgiliau motor
  • cefnogi datblygiad iaith
  • rhyngweithio ag eraill
  • deall dilyniant a threfn
  • dysgu am bwysigrwydd hylendid
  • cymryd tro - efallai bydd rhaid aros ychydig os oes sawl plentyn bach yn golchi eu dwylo.
Gofal y geg
  • annog y defnydd o frws dannedd yn gynnar
  • chwarae rôl trwy frwsio dannedd
  • ymweld â’r deintydd yn gyson
  • yfed dŵr rhwng prydau bwyd
  • cynnig snac sy’n rhydd o siwgr.
  • datblygu sgiliau motor
  • gwneud dewisiadau e.e. dewis brws dannedd
  • datblygu agwedd dda tuag at hylendid y geg
  • tyfu’n iach
  • datblygu hyder a hunan-barch
  • datblygu annibyniaeth.
Gofal y croen
  • annog plentyn i olchi ei wyneba yn annibynnol
  • annog plentyn i edrych mewn drych wrth olchi’r wyneb
  • rhoi dol i blentyn i olchi ei hwyneb
  • canu caneuon
  • edrych am frechau neu ddolur ar y croen
  • annog plentyn bach i wisgo dillad addas i’r tywydd - het yn yr haul a dillad cynnes pan fydd yn oer
  • bydd angen rhoi olew yn gyson ar groen plentyn croenddu.
  • datblygu sgiliau motor
  • dysgu am ddilyniant a threfn
  • datblygu hyder a hunan-barch
  • hyrwyddo ffordd iach o fyw
  • agwedd dda tuag at hylendid
  • dysgu enwau mannau o’r corff.
Gorffwys, amser tawel, cwsg
  • cynnig llyfrau a posau jigso i blant bach gael cyfnodau o orffwys
  • gwrando ar gerddoriaeth mewn mannau tawel
  • sgyrsiau tawel
  • sicrhau bod mannau addas i gysgu
  • sicrhau bod yr ardal gysgu’n gynnes
  • darllen stori cyn i’r baban/ plentyn bach fynd i gysgu
  • bod yn amyneddgar wrth i faban datblygu patrwm cwsg
  • aros yn dawel, weithiau heb gyfathrebu.
  • datblygu sgiliau iaith
  • datblygu sgiliau gwrando
  • dysgu bod rhaid i’r corff ymlacio a chael cwsg
  • datblygu’r gallu i ymlacio
  • datblygu mwynhad o lyfrau a cherddoriaeth
  • mwynhau gyda ffrindiau.

Darllen pellach:

Hint 2: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Modi est praesentium earum exercitationem, accusantium molestiae asperiores reiciendis aliquam doloribus, delectus, cumque odio omnis rem, aliquid et. Quisquam eius, incidunt ab.

Awgrymiadau 2: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Modi est praesentium earum exercitationem, accusantium molestiae asperiores reiciendis aliquam doloribus, delectus, cumque odio omnis rem, aliquid et. Quisquam eius, incidunt ab.

Carrying and holding babies/toddlers safely

Cario a dal babanod a phlant bach yn ddiogel

Sleeping baby in mother's arms

Childcare workers need to be able to carry and hold babies and toddlers safely. This is important regarding the safety of the child and the childcare worker. There are many ways to carry and hold babies and toddlers and the childcare worker needs to understand and learn the best way of doing so. The setting should have a specific policy for holding and carrying babies and toddlers safely. These guidelines are included in the 'movement and placement' policy. The childcare worker should work in a way that complies with the policy in accordance with their role and responsibilities. This policy is based on the regulations below.

Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992

It considers ways to undertake a variety of activities in relation to lifting and carrying, moving things from one place to another, stretching to reach things, pulling, pushing, lowering. Moving children, animals or other living things could also be considered. The risks associated with the manual handling of any item must be considered as it could damage the body. Appropriate action should be taken in order to ensure the health and safety of each individual. The regulations give clear guidelines with regard to how to undertake manual handling operations safely and draw attention to the risks and how to minimise the risk of injury. They also refer to good techniques to use in order to take care of the body.

Lifting a baby from a cot or pram

  • the knees should be bent, going down to the baby's level so that the back does not bear all the weight
  • a very young baby has no control over their head movements as their neck muscles have not yet developed and therefore, they need protection
  • one hand should be placed under the baby's head and the other under their bottom
  • the soft areas on the head should not be pressed
  • by 3 or 4 months, the baby should be able to hold their head up for a while, with support.

Lifting a child from the floor

  • the tripod technique should be used, which involves placing one foot alongside the baby and going down on one knee
  • the baby should be eased from the knee to the middle of the thigh and then the baby should be lifted to the opposite thigh
  • both forearms should be placed under the baby to bring them to the chest.

Holding a baby on the shoulder

  • one hand should be placed on the baby's bottom with the other hand supporting the head and neck
  • the back needs to be kept straight to avoid strain
  • the whole arm should be used to carry the baby in order to spread the weight, ensuring that their head is over the shoulder or turned to the side to aid breathing
  • this position enables the baby to listen to the heartbeat and look over the shoulder of the individual who is carrying them
  • it is a good idea to swap shoulders from time to time in order to avoid putting strain on one shoulder only.

Baby carrier

  • this should be positioned so that the baby is carried in front of the body
  • this will allow the baby to be close to the body
  • it is essential that the baby faces the individual who is carrying them rather than facing away from them.

Carrying the baby in a sling

  • a sling is a piece of material draped over one shoulder and under the other arm to create a small cradle to carry the baby
  • care must be taken to ensure that neither the body nor the sling obscures the baby's face, preventing them from breathing
  • the knees should be bent to pick up something from the floor whilst the baby is in the sling
  • it is also important to swap the shoulder over which the sling is draped in order to avoid putting strain on one shoulder only.

Holding and carrying older children

  • although slightly older children are energetic, they sometimes experience periods of fatigue and will need to be lifted
  • they may need to be lifted from a hazardous place
  • they can be lifted without supporting the head and neck
  • the knees should be bent when lifting toddlers in order to protect the back
  • toddlers can also be carried by keeping their backs close to the chest - one hand should be placed around their waist and the other under their bottom
  • the child will be able to look around when being carried like this
  • they can also be bounced up and down playfully in this position as well as comforted by rocking them to and fro.

Mae angen i weithwyr gofal plant allu cario a dal babanod a phlant bach mewn ffordd ddiogel. Mae hyn yn bwysig o ran diogelwch y plentyn a’r gweithiwr gofal plant. Mae sawl gwahanol ffordd o gario a dal babanod a phlant bach ac mae angen i’r gweithiwr gofal plant ddeall a dysgu am y ffordd orau o wneud hyn. Dylai fod polisi penodol o fewn y lleoliad ar sut i ddal a chario babanod a phlant bach yn ddiogel. Mae’r canllawiau hyn wedi’u cynnwys yn y polisi ‘symud a lleoli’. Dylai’r gweithiwr gofal plant weithio mewn ffordd sy’n cydymffurfio â’r polisi yn unol â’i rôl a’i gyfrifoldebau. Mae’r polisi hwn yn deillio o’r rheoliadau isod.

Rheoliadau Gweithrediadau Codi a Chario 1992

Mae’n ystyried y ffyrdd i ymgymryd ag amrywiaeth o weithgareddau codi a chario, symud pethau o un man i’r llall, ymestyn i nôl pethau, gwthio, tynnu, codi, gostwng. Gellir hefyd ystyried symud plentyn, anifail neu unrhyw beth arall byw. Mae’n rhaid ystyried y risgiau wrth godi a chario unrhyw beth gan y gall y weithred niweidio’r corff. Mae angen cymryd y camau gweithredu cywir er mwyn sicrhau iechyd a diogelwch pob unigolyn. Mae’r rheoliadau’n cynnig canllawiau clir ar sut i godi a chario’n ddiogel gan dynnu sylw at y risgiau a sut i leihau’r risg o anaf. Yn ogystal, ceir cyfeiriadau at dechnegau da i’w defnyddio er mwyn cymryd gofal o’r corff.

Codi’r baban o’r crud neu’r pram

  • mae angen plygu’r coesau wrth godi baban o’r crud neu’r pram, gan fynd lawr i lefel y baban fel na fydd y pwysau i gyd yn cael ei roi ar y cefn
  • nid oes gan faban ifanc iawn unrhyw reolaeth dros ei ben gan nad yw cyhyrau'r gwddf wedi datblygu ac felly mae angen ei amddiffyn
  • bydd angen rhoi un llaw o dan ben y baban a’r llall o dan y pen ôl
  • rhaid peidio gwasgu’r mannau meddal sydd ar y pen
  • erbyn tua 3 i 4 mis bydd y baban yn medru dal y pen i fyny am ychydig, gyda chefnogaeth.

Codi’r plentyn o’r llawr

  • mae angen defnyddio’r dechneg trybedd (tripod), sef rhoi un droed wrth ochr y baban a mynd i lawr ar un ben-glin
  • mae angen llithro’r baban o’r pen-glin i ganol y forddwyd a chodi’r baban i’r forddwyd gyferbyn
  • rhoi’r ddwy elin o dan y baban a’i ddod yn agos at y frest.

Dal y baban ar yr ysgwydd

  • mae angen rhoi un llaw ar ben ôl y baban gyda’r llaw arall yn cefnogi’r pen a’r gwddf
  • mae angen cadw’r cefn yn syth er mwyn ei ddiogelu rhag straen
  • rhaid defnyddio’r fraich gyfan i gario’r baban er mwyn gwasgaru’r pwysau gan sicrhau bod pen y baban dros yr ysgwydd neu wedi’i droi i’r ochr fel y gall anadlu
  • bydd y safle hwn yn galluogi’r baban i glywed curiad calon ac edrych dros ysgwydd yr unigolyn sy’n ei gario
  • mae’n syniad da i gyfnewid ysgwyddau o bryd i’w gilydd er mwyn osgoi straen ar un ysgwydd yn unig.

‘Cludydd baban’ (baby carrier)

  • cael ei osod fel bod y baban yn cael ei gario ar flaen y corff
  • bydd hyn yn caniatáu’r baban i fod yn agos at y corff
  • mae’n hanfodol bod y baban yn wynebu’r unigolyn sy’n ei gario yn hytrach na wynebu oddi wrtho.

Cario’r baban mewn sling

  • sling yw darn o ddefnydd sy’n cael ei osod dros un ysgwydd ac o dan y fraich arall er mwyn creu crud bychan i gario’r baban
  • mae’n rhaid gwneud yn siŵr nad yw’r corff na’r sling yn cuddio wyneb y baban ac yn ei atal rhag anadlu
  • mae angen plygu’r pengliniau os am godi rhywbeth o’r llawr tra bod y baban yn y sling
  • mae hefyd yn bwysig i gyfnewid yr ysgwydd mae’r sling wedi cael ei osod arni er mwyn osgoi straen ar un yn unig.

Dal a chario plant hŷn

  • er bod gan blant sydd ychydig yn hŷn lawer o egni, maen nhw weithiau’n cael cyfnodau o flinder a bydd angen eu codi
  • efallai y bydd angen eu codi allan o fan peryglus
  • gellir eu codi heb gefnogi’r cefn a’r gwddf
  • mae angen plygu’r pengliniau wrth godi plentyn hŷn er mwyn amddiffyn y cefn
  • gellir hefyd gario’r plentyn hŷn trwy gadw ei gefn yn agos at frest yr unigolion sy’n ei gario – dylid rhoi un llaw o amgylch ei ganol a’r llall o dan y pen ôl
  • bydd y plentyn yn medru edrych o gwmpas wrth gael ei gario fel hyn
  • gellir hefyd ei fownsio i fyny ac i lawr yn chwareus yn y safle hwn yn ogystal â’i gysuro trwy ei siglo yn ôl ac ymlaen.

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How to wash, dress and change babies and toddlers

Sut i ymolchi, gwisgo a newid babanod a phlant bach

Child doing up his shirt buttons

Babies and toddlers need to be kept clean. Being kept clean makes them feel comfortable and avoids skin infections. Childcare workers should discuss with parents whether there is anything to keep an eye on, e.g. a baby/toddler suffering from eczema or an allergy to bathing products, such as soap. The childcare worker should ensure that the room is warm (at least 20°C) when washing, dressing and changing babies and toddlers.

Washing babies

Babies do not need a daily bath as they don’t do any activities that would make them dirty. However, it is important to keep the ‘top and tail’ clean. Childcare workers need to choose a time when the baby is awake and comfortable. All the resources should be brought together before starting to wash the baby, i.e. changing mat, a bowl of warm water, cotton wool, baby sponge or flannel, towel, soap, baby lotion or wet wipes, nail scissors, clean nappy.

Actions to take:

  • Hold the baby on the knee or laid down on the changing mat.
  • Use moist cotton wool in warm water and wash the eye from the inside out - this will prevent cross-infection.
  • Use another piece of clean cotton wool for the other eye. Do not use cotton buds to clean inside the ears.
  • Wash both ears carefully with a piece of moist cotton wool.
  • Wash the rest of the face and then the mouth.
  • Wash the baby's hands and body with a sponge or flannel.
  • Ensure that nails are kept short by cutting straight across them as agreed with parents/carers. The child will scratch if their nails are too long.
  • Take off the nappy and wash the nappy area and the genital area. This may be done using only water, soapy water, baby lotion or wet wipes (this will need to be discussed with the parents/carers).
  • Dry the baby and pay close attention to folds in the skin.
  • Apply barrier cream around the bottom and folds in the skin as agreed with parents/carers.
  • Put a clean nappy on the baby.

Bathing babies

Childcare workers need to ensure the room is warm if the baby is to have a bath. Do not bath a baby straight after food or when the baby is hungry; this will cause them discomfort.

Actions to take:

  • the water must be warm - this can be checked by placing your wrist or elbow in the water
  • do not add bubble bath, warm water is adequate during the first months
  • wash the baby's hair by holding them carefully over the side of the bath, pouring water over their hair
  • dry the hair with a towel
  • take off the nappy and clean the baby's bottom if it is soiled
  • put the baby in the bath using one hand to hold the upper arm and support the head
  • keep the baby's head out of the bath and use the other hand to wash the body
  • lift the baby from the bath and dry them with a towel paying close attention to folds in the skin
  • never leave a baby unattended in the bath; they can drown in an inch of water.

Dressing the baby

  • Clothes must be comfortable.
  • Ensure that clothes do not irritate the baby's skin.
  • Clothes must be easy to remove. The baby may need to be changed several times a day if they vomit often.
  • Clothes must fit well; clothes that are too small may leave marks on the skin.
  • Clothes that are too big may obstruct the baby's movement.
  • The baby does not need shoes until they start walking.
  • Their feet can be kept warm by wearing well-fitting socks. If they do not fit, they can damage the feet.
  • Clothes need to be checked for safety. Babies can choke on loose buttons and pieces that are tied together.

Changing nappies

It is essential that the childcare worker understands that each baby has different needs. Some babies have very sensitive skin and their nappies will need to be changed as soon as they are wet in order to prevent the skin from becoming red and sore. Other babies can wait until they have been fed or can be changed before feeding times. Before changing the baby’s nappy, hands must be washed and everything must be ready; changing mat, a bowl of warm water, cotton wool, a nappy bag or bucket to dispose of the wet/soiled nappy, barrier cream, clean nappy.

Actions to take:

  • Use cotton wool and warm water to wash the baby.
  • Girls should be washed from the front to the back to prevent germs from spreading to the genitals.
  • Leave the baby to lie on the mat to kick for a while before putting on a clean nappy.
  • If the childcare worker is using a disposable nappy, they must take care to prevent water or cream from going on the tabs; this will prevent them from sticking.
  • If the childcare worker is using a cloth nappy, they will need a nappy liner, a pin to secure the nappy and plastic pants.
  • The wet/soiled nappy must be disposed of in a nappy sack. If the childcare worker is using cloth nappies, they will need to soak and wash them.

Washing toddlers

As the baby grows, they will start to play a more active role in washing, and it is important that the childcare worker encourages this to promote independence. The baby must still be held in the bath until they are able to sit up, in case they slip under the water. Having such an experience in the bath can frighten a toddler. If they feel safe in the bath, it can be a lot of fun. As they grow and develop, they will prefer to sit up in the bath. They will be able to hold a flannel and use it to wash their face. They will be able to do this regularly under the childcare workers supervision:

Actions to take:

  • The room should be warm.
  • Everything should be brought together before running the bath.
  • The bath should always be filled with cold water first.
  • The bath water should be warm.
  • Provide toys or objects such as plastic bottles and empty washing-up bottles so that the toddler can squirt water.
  • Wash their hair with shampoo and ensure that the process is fun.
  • Rinse the shampoo from the hair with clean water.
  • Do not force the child to wash their hair if they are uncomfortable with the experience. Instead, wash the head with a moist flannel.
  • The child needs to be completely dry before dressing.
  • Never leave a toddler unattended in the bath; they can drown in an inch of water.

Dressing toddlers

As the toddler starts crawling and walking, they will begin to make greater use of the environment and will often get their clothes dirty. This is completely natural and the childcare worker should not get angry with the toddler for soiling their clothes. The child needs to wear clothes that can be removed easily for nappy changing and so that they can be washed and dried easily. The child can start to learn to become independent by starting to put on certain items of clothing for themselves; e.g. socks, trousers and coat.

Actions to take:

  • Cotton underwear is comfortable for toddlers. They also absorb sweat.
  • Wearing all-in-one vests is a good idea if the child is in nappies. These will keep them warm.
  • Trousers will be suitable when the child starts crawling.
  • During toilet training, loose trousers or shorts are useful. The child should not wear dungarees at this time as they are difficult to remove and put back on.
  • T-shirts and jumpers are easy to wear and wash.
  • The child must be dressed appropriately for the weather. A layer of clothing can be removed if it is warm and added if it is cold.
  • Socks need to fit well; socks that are too tight can deform toddlers' bones as they are soft.
  • The child should wear shoes if they are walking and these should fit well. Wellies are suitable to wear in the rain.
  • They can wear footless all-in-ones to go to bed.
  • Toddlers' clothes need to be checked for safety.

Further reading:

Mae angen cadw babanod a phlant bach yn lân. Bydd hyn yn gwneud iddynt deimlo’n gyffyrddus gan osgoi heintiadau ar y croen. Bydd angen trafod gyda’r rhieni/gofalwyr i ddarganfod a oes yna rywbeth y dylid cadw golwg arno, e.e. baban/plentyn bach sy’n dioddef o ecsema neu alergedd i gynnyrch ymolchi megis sebon. Bydd angen sicrhau bod yr ystafell yn gynnes wrth ymolchi, gwisgo a newid babanod a phlant bach; o leiaf 20°C.

Ymolchi babanod

Nid yw’n angenrheidiol bod baban yn cael bath bob dydd gan nad yw’n ymgymryd â gweithgareddau sy’n ei wneud yn fudr. Serch hynny, mae angen cadw’r ‘pen a chynffonna’ yn lân. Mae angen dewis amser pan mae’r baban yn effro ac yn gysurus. Bydd angen casglu’r holl adnoddau at ei gilydd cyn cychwyn ymolchi’r baban, h.y. mat newid, powlen o ddŵr cynnes, gwlân cotwm, sbwng baban neu wlanen, tywel, sebon, trwyth baban (baby lotion) neu sychwyr gwlyb, siswrn ewinedd, cewyn glân.

Camau i’w cymryd:

  • Dal y baban ar y ben-glin neu ei roi i orwedd ar y mat newid.
  • Defnyddio gwlân cotwm llaith mewn dŵr cynnes a golchi’r llygad o’r tu mewn allan - bydd hyn yn atal traws-heintiad.
  • Defnyddio darn glân o wlân cotwm ar gyfer y llygad arall. Peidio â defnyddio ‘cotton buds’ i lanhau tu fewn y clustiau.
  • Golchi’r ddwy glust yn ofalus gyda darn o wlân cotwm llaith.
  • Golchi gweddill yr wyneb ac yna’r geg.
  • Golchi dwylo’r baban a gweddill y corff gyda sbwng neu wlanen.
  • Sicrhau bod yr ewinedd yn fyr gan dorri’n syth ar eu traws fel y cytunwyd â rhieni/gofalwyr. Bydd y plentyn yn crafu os yw’r ewinedd yn rhy hir.
  • Tynnu’r cewyn a golchi ardal o’i gwmpas a’r ardal genhedlu. Gellir defnyddio dŵr yn unig, dŵr a sebon, trwyth baban neu sychwyr gwlyb (bydd rhaid trafod hyn gyda’r rhieni/gofalwyr).
  • Sychu’r baban gan dalu sylw manwl i blygion y croen.
  • Rhoi eli rhwystrol o amgylch y pen ôl a’r plygion croen er mwyn amddiffyn croen y baban, fel y cytunwyd â rhieni/gofalwyr.
  • Gosod cewyn glân am y baban.

Rhoi bath i fabanod

Mae’n rhaid i’r gweithiwr gofal plant ofalu bod yr ystafell yn gynnes os yw’r baban yn cael bath. Ni ddylid rhoi bath yn syth ar ôl bwyd neu pan mae’r baban yn llwglyd; bydd hyn yn gwneud iddo deimlo’n anghysurus.

Camau i’w cymryd:

  • mae angen i’r dŵr fod yn gynnes - gellir gwirio hyn trwy osod arddwrn neu benelin yn y dŵr
  • peidio ag ychwanegu swigod bath, mae dŵr cynnes yn ddigon yn ystod y misoedd cyntaf
  • golchi gwallt y baban drwy ei ddal yn ofalus dros ochr y bath gan daenu dŵr drosto
  • sychu’r gwallt gyda thywel
  • tynnu’r cewyn a glanhau pen ôl y baban os yw’n fudr
  • gostwng y baban i’r bath gan ddefnyddio un llaw i afael yn y fraich uchaf ac i gefnogi’r pen
  • cadw pen y baban allan o’r bath a defnyddio’r llaw arall i olchi ei gorff
  • codi’r baban o’r bath a’i sychu gyda thywel gan dalu sylw arbennig i blygion y croen
  • peidiwch byth â gadael y baban ar ei ben ei hun yn y bath; gallant foddi mewn 1 modfedd o ddŵr.

Gwisgo’r baban

  • Mae angen i’r dillad fod yn gyffyrddus.
  • Rhaid sicrhau nad yw’r dillad yn cythruddo croen y baban.
  • Angen dillad sy’n hawdd eu tynnu. Efallai bydd angen newid y baban sawl gwaith yn ystod y dydd os yw’n chwydu’n aml.
  • Rhaid i’r dillad ffitio’n dda; gall dillad rhy fach adael marciau ar y croen.
  • Gall dillad rhy fawr rwystro’r baban rhag symud.
  • Nid oes angen esgidiau ar y baban nes ei fod yn dechrau cerdded.
  • Gellir cadw’r traed yn gynnes trwy wisgo ‘sanau gan sicrhau eu bod yn ffitio’n iawn. Os nad ydyn nhw’n ffitio, maen nhw’n gallu niweidio’r traed.
  • Mae angen gwirio dillad am ddiogelwch. Gall babanod dagu ar fotymau sy’n rhydd a darnau sy’n cael eu clymu.

Newid cewyn y baban

Mae’n hanfodol bod yr gweithiwr gofal plant yn deall bod anghenion pob baban yn wahanol. Mae gan rai babanod groen sensitif iawn a bydd angen newid y cewyn yn syth ar ôl ei wlychu er mwyn rhwystro’r croen rhag mynd yn goch ac yn ddolurus. Mae babanod eraill yn medru aros tan ar ôl iddynt gael eu bwydo neu cyn amser bwydo. Cyn newid cewyn y baban, bydd angen golchi dwylo a chasglu popeth yn barod: mat newid, powlen o ddŵr cynnes, gwlân cotwm, bwced neu fag cewyn i waredu’r cewyn gwlyb/budr, eli rhwystrol, cewyn glân.

Camau i’w cymryd:

  • Defnyddio gwlân cotwm a dŵr cynnes i lanhau’r baban.
  • Dylid glanhau merched o’r blaen i’r cefn er mwyn atal germau rhag lledu i’r organau cenhedlu.
  • Gadael y baban i orwedd ar y mat i gicio am ychydig cyn rhoi cewyn glân.
  • Os ydy’r gweithiwr gofal plant yn defnyddio cewyn un tro, bydd angen cymryd gofal rhag ofn i ddŵr neu hufen fynd ar y tabiau; mae hyn yn eu hatal rhag glynu.
  • Os ydych chi'n defnyddio cewyn clwt, bydd angen defnyddio leinin cewyn, pin i’w gau’n ddiogel a phants plastig.
  • Mae angen gwaredu’r cewyn gwlyb/ budr mewn sach cewyn. Os ydy’r gweithiwr gofal plant yn defnyddio cewyn clwt, bydd angen ei roi mewn dŵr a’i olchi.

Ymolchi plant bach

Wrth i’r baban dyfu, bydd yn dechrau cymryd rhan fwy gweithredol wrth ymolchi ac mae’n bwysig bod yr gweithiwr gofal plant yn annog hyn er mwyn hyrwyddo annibyniaeth. Mae’n rhaid parhau i ddal y baban yn y bath hyd nes y bydd yn gallu eistedd i fyny rhag ofn iddo lithro o dan y dŵr. Mae profiad o’r fath yn gallu codi ofn ar y plentyn bach wrth iddo gael bath. Os yw’n teimlo’n ddiogel yn y bath, mae’n medru bod yn llawer o hwyl. Wrth dyfu a datblygu, bydd yn well ganddo eistedd i fyny yn y bath. Bydd yn gallu cydio mewn gwlanen a’i ddefnyddio i olchi ei wyneb ei hunain. Bydd hyn yn datblygu i fod yn rhywbeth y mae’n medru ei gynnal yn rheolaidd ac mae’n rhaid i’r gweithiwr gofal plant oruchwylio’r plentyn bach wrth iddo gyflawni’r dasg hon.

Camau i’w cymryd:

  • Dylai’r ystafell fod yn gynnes.
  • Mae angen casglu popeth at ei gilydd cyn rhoi’r dŵr yn y bath.
  • Dylid rhoi dŵr oer yn y bath yn gyntaf bob tro.
  • Dylai dŵr y bath fod yn gynnes.
  • Rhoi teganau neu wrthrychau megis poteli plastig a photeli golchi llestri gwag fel bod y plentyn bach yn medru chwistrellu dŵr.
  • Golchi’r gwallt gyda siampŵ a gwneud y broses yn llawn hwyl.
  • Rinsio’r siampŵ o’r gwallt gyda dŵr glân.
  • Peidio â gorfodi’r plentyn i olchi ei wallt os nad yw’n gysurus â’r profiad. Yn hytrach gwlychu’r pen gyda gwlanen laith.
  • Mae angen i’r plentyn fod yn hollol sych cyn ei wisgo.
  • Peidiwch byth â gadael y plentyn bach ar ben ei hun yn y bath; gallant foddi mewn 1 modfedd o ddŵr.

Gwisgo plentyn bach

Wrth i’r plentyn bach ddechrau cropian a cherdded, bydd yn dechrau gwneud mwy o ddefnydd o’r amgylchedd ac yn baeddu ei ddillad yn aml. Mae hyn yn hollol naturiol ac ni ddylai’r gweithiwr gofal plant fod yn flin gyda’r plentyn bach am beidio â chadw ei ddillad yn lân. Mae angen i’r plentyn wisgo dillad sy’n hawdd i’w tynnu i ar gyfer newid cewyn a’u bod yn medru cael eu golchi a’u sychu’n hawdd. Gall y plentyn ddechrau dysgu dod yn annibynnol wrth ddechrau gwisgo rhai dillad eu hunain; e.e. sanau, trowsus a chot.

Camau i’w cymryd:

  • Mae dillad isaf cotwm yn well gan eu bod yn fwy cyffyrddus i blant bach. Maent hefyd yn amsugno chwys.
  • Mae’n ddefnyddiol i wisgo festiau un darn os yw’r plentyn yn gwisgo cewyn. Mae’r rhain yn ei gadw’n gynnes.
  • Mae trowsus yn addas pan fydd y plentyn yn dechrau cropian.
  • Os yw plentyn yn dechrau dysgu defnyddio’r toiled, gall trowsus llac neu siorts fod yn fwy addas. Ni ddylid rhoi dyngarîs am y plentyn yn ystod y cyfnod hwn gan eu bod yn anodd eu tynnu a’u rhoi yn ôl amdano.
  • Mae crysau t a siwmperi yn hawdd i’w gwisgo a’u golchi.
  • Mae angen gwisgo yn ôl y tywydd. Tynnu haenen o ddillad os yw’n boeth ac ychwanegu haenen os yw’n oer.
  • Mae angen bod y ‘sanau’n ffitio’n gywir; gall ‘sanau rhy dynn anffurfio esgyrn plant bach gan eu bod yn feddal.
  • Dylai’r plentyn wisgo esgidiau os yw’n cerdded a dylai’r rhain ffitio’n dda. Mae welis yn addas i’w gwisgo y tu allan, yn y glaw.
  • Maen nhw’n gallu gwisgo siwtiau un darn, heb draed, i fynd i’r gwely.
  • Mae angen gwirio dillad plant bach o ran diogelwch.

Darllen pellach:

Hint 4: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Modi est praesentium earum exercitationem, accusantium molestiae asperiores reiciendis aliquam doloribus, delectus, cumque odio omnis rem, aliquid et. Quisquam eius, incidunt ab.

Awgrymiadau 4: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Modi est praesentium earum exercitationem, accusantium molestiae asperiores reiciendis aliquam doloribus, delectus, cumque odio omnis rem, aliquid et. Quisquam eius, incidunt ab.

How to support toilet training

Sut i gefnogi hyfforddiant i ddefnyddio’r toiled

A child potty training

When toilet training toddlers, there is a need to identify and understand their stages of development and realise that every child develops in their own time. Supporting toddlers to develop this skill requires respect and a lot of patience from childcare workers.

Toddlers do not start to use the toilet until they understand the need to do so:

  • The brain needs to have developed to understand the message that the bladder or bowel is full.
  • There is no right way or time to start this process.
  • There is no point rushing the child. It is better to leave it until they show an interest.
  • A child between 12 and 18 months may know that they have wet themselves, but they will have not yet developed the understanding that they need to go to the toilet.
  • The child needs to be able to use language to tell the childcare worker that they need to go to the toilet or express this through body language.
  • A nappy that stays dry for a long time is a sign that the child is ready to start to use the toilet. This shows that the child has started to develop control of their bladder.

Before the child starts using the toilet, the childcare worker needs to be aware of the routine in the home:

  • They will need to discuss regularly with parents/carers in order to avoid misunderstanding and making the process more complex for the toddler.
  • If the child is familiar with using nappies and pull-up pants at home, it is essential that this practice continues in the setting.
  • Childcare workers need to know whether the child uses a training seat or not.
  • If the child uses a small step to lift themselves up to the toilet, a step should be available in the setting too.
  • It must be ensured that the child is wearing clothes to facilitate the process. Trousers with an elasticated waist will be easy to pull up and down if the child is in a hurry to use the potty or toilet.
  • Never compare one child with another because everyone is different, and everyone learns and develops in their own time.

This will make the child feel comfortable when learning to use the toilet in the setting.

Toilet training is much easier when the weather is nice.

  • The child can be left in their underwear in the home or setting and they can wear shorts when they are outside or away from the home.
  • The child can move or run around without nappies to see and feel what happens when they 'have an accident'.
  • Toilet training should not be limited to nice weather alone.
  • Learning needs to be fun and it is important that the childcare worker never loses their temper or gets angry if the child does not reach the toilet in time.
  • This will make the child feel anxious and reluctant to use the toilet.

It is good practice to leave a potty in the lavatory so that the child can use it if required:

  • If the toddler shows an interest in the potty, the childcare worker should react positively.
  • The potty should be kept in the lavatory to show respect to the child and give them privacy. This will also prevent cross-infection.
  • If the toddler is still in nappies, it may be useful to sit the child on the potty after they have wet or soiled themselves in order to show them where everything should go.
  • The toddler should not be forced to sit on the potty; the nappy should be put back on and the potty should be set aside for a couple of days.
  • Try again when the child shows more interest.
  • The child will stop using the potty in their own time. They should not be forced or rushed.

A child will have regular accidents as they do not understand the body signals to say that they need to go to the toilet until it is too late.

  • This may happen if the child is in the middle of doing something and has not noticed that they need to go to the toilet.
  • The childcare worker needs to remind the child from time to time.
  • At times, the child will be disappointed that they have not reached the toilet in time.
  • The childcare worker needs to be sensitive, providing support and encouragement when this happens.
  • When a child has an accident, they need to be changed in private out of the view of other children.

It is completely natural for toddlers to wet the bed at night even though they are dry during the day. This will stop as they grow older and go all day without accidents.

Developing the skill of using the toilet is a big step for children in terms of acquiring independence skills:

  • they will experience changes
  • they will have to change from using snug-fitting nappies to wearing underwear which is much less bulky
  • they will have to make decisions about when they need to go to the toilet
  • they will have to cope with accidents
  • seeing everyone else using the toilet will be a positive step
  • it is important to show respect to the child, letting them choose whether they want to close the toilet door or not
  • the childcare worker needs to be at hand in case the child needs help
  • the toddler needs to learn how to wipe themselves correctly
  • they also need to learn about the importance of washing their hands after going to the toilet
  • these routines must be reinforced from the outset.

Whichever way the toddler learns to use the toilet, they will need positive support from their parents/carers and childcare workers. They may not want to use nappies and pull-up pants or the potty at all, going straight on to use the toilet. Whatever the child chooses, the childcare workers role is to help them develop their routine successfully. The child may be rewarded for using the potty or toilet. A toy may be provided to engage the child when they are sitting on the potty/toilet to ensure that they stay there long enough. Giving praise for passing water or faeces is a positive way of showing respect to the child. A sticker chart may also be used as an incentive to encourage this and to make it fun for the toddler. The reinforcement approach depends on the toddler's personality and how the parents/carers wish to use it. It is important that all staff within the setting are aware of every child's toilet training routine. This will facilitate learning.

Further reading:

Wrth hyfforddi plant bach sut i ddefnyddio’r toiled, mae angen adnabod a deall eu camau datblygiad a sylweddoli bod pob plentyn yn datblygu yn ei amser ei hun. Mae angen dangos parch a llawer o amynedd wrth gefnogi plant bach i ddefnyddio’r toiled yn gywir.

Ni all plant bach ddechrau defnyddio’r toiled tan eu bod wedi datblygu i ddeall yr angen i’w ddefnyddio:

  • Mae angen bod yr ymennydd wedi datblygu i ddeall y neges bod y bledren neu’r perfedd yn llawn.
  • Nid oes amser cywir na ffordd gywir i ddechrau ar y broses hon ac mae hyn yn amrywio’n fawr o fewn teuluoedd.
  • Nid oes pwynt rhuthro’r plentyn. Bydd ei adael tan ei fod tua 2 oed, neu pan fydd yn dangos diddordeb yn llawer gwell.
  • Efallai bydd plentyn rhwng 12 a 18 mis yn gwybod ei fod wedi gwlychu ei hun ond ni fydd wedi datblygu i fedru deall bod angen mynd i’r toiled.
  • Rhaid i’r plentyn fedru defnyddio iaith i’w alluogi i ddweud wrth yr gweithiwr gofal plant ei fod angen mynd i’r toiled neu ddangos drwy ddefnyddio iaith y corff.
  • Arwydd bod y plentyn yn barod i ddysgu defnyddio’r toiled yw cewyn sych am gyfnodau hir. Mae hynny’n dangos fod y plentyn yn dechrau datblygu rheolaeth dros y bledren.

Cyn bod y plentyn bach yn dechrau defnyddio’r toiled yn y lleoliad, mae angen bod yn ymwybodol o’r drefn sy’n digwydd yn y cartref:

  • Bydd angen trafod yn gyson gyda rhieni/gofalwyr er mwyn osgoi camddealltwriaeth a gwneud y broses yn fwy cymhleth i’r plentyn bach.
  • Os yw’r plentyn yn gyfarwydd â defnyddio cewynnau a phants tynnu i fyny yn y cartref, mae’n hanfodol bod yr gweithiwr gofal plant yn ymwybodol o hyn fel y gall yr arfer barhau yn y lleoliad.
  • Mae angen gwybod a yw’r plentyn yn defnyddio sedd hyfforddiant sy’n cael ei osod ar y toiled neu beidio.
  • Os yw’n defnyddio step fechan i wthio ei hun i fyny i’r toiled, mae’n ddefnyddiol bod un ar gael yn y lleoliad hefyd.
  • Mae gwisgo trowsus gyda chanol elastig yn hawdd i’w tynnu i lawr ac i fyny. Ni ddylid gwisgo plant mewn dyngarîs na theits gan na fydd digon o amser gan y plentyn i’w tynnu i lawr os byddan nhw ar frys i ddefnyddio’r poti neu doiled.
  • Ni ddylid cymharu un plentyn gyda phlentyn arall gan fod pawb yn wahanol ac mae pawb yn dysgu a datblygu ar adegau gwahanol.

Bydd hyn oll yn gwneud y plentyn i deimlo’n gyfforddus iawn wrth ddysgu defnyddio’r toiled yn y lleoliad.

Mae’n llawer haws dysgu sut i ddefnyddio’r toiled pan mae’r tywydd yn braf.

  • Gellir gadael y plentyn mewn dillad isaf yn y tŷ neu’r lleoliad a gwisgo siorts pan fydd i ffwrdd o’r cartref neu y tu allan.
  • Mae’r plentyn yn gallu symud neu redeg o amgylch heb gewynnau gan weld a theimlo beth sy’n digwydd pan mae’n ‘cael damwain’.
  • Nid yn ystod tywydd braf yn unig y dylid dechrau dysgu plant sut i ddefnyddio’r toiled.
  • Mae angen bod y dysgu’n hwyl ac mae’n bwysig nad yw’r gweithiwr gofal plant yn colli. tymer a mynd yn ddig os yw’r plentyn yn methu â chyrraedd y toiled mewn pryd
  • Bydd hyn yn gwneud y plentyn yn bryderus ac yn gyndyn i ddefnyddio’r toiled.

Mae’n arfer dda i adael poti yn yr ystafell toiled fel bod y plentyn yn medru ei ddefnyddio os yw ei angen:

  • Mae angen bod yn bositif pan fydd y plentyn bach yn dangos diddordeb yn y poti.
  • Dylid cadw’r poti yn yr ystafell toiled er mwyn dangos parch a rhoi preifatrwydd i’r plentyn. Bydd hyn hefyd yn lleihau risg o draws-heintiad.
  • Os yw’r plentyn bach yn dal i wisgo cewyn, mae’n syniad i eistedd y plentyn ar y poti ar ôl iddo ei wlychu neu ei faeddu er mwyn dangos iddo ble ddylai’r cyfan fynd.
  • Ni ddylid gorfodi’r plentyn bach i eistedd ar y poti; dylid rhoi’r cewyn yn ôl amdano a rhoi’r poti i'r naill ochr am rai diwrnodau.
  • Rhoi cynnig arni eto pan fydd y plentyn yn dangos mwy o ddiddordeb.
  • Bydd y plentyn yn rhoi’r gorau i ddefnyddio’r poti yn ei amser ei hun. Ni ddylid ei orfodi na’i ruthro.

Bydd plentyn yn cael damweiniau’n gyson gan nad yw’n deall yr arwyddion sydd gan y corff i ddweud fod angen mynd i’r toiled tan ei bod yn rhy hwyr:

  • Efallai bydd hyn yn digwydd os yw’r plentyn yng nghanol gwneud rhywbeth ac nid yn sylwi bod angen mynd i’r toiled.
  • Mae angen i’r gweithiwr gofal plant atgoffa’r plentyn o bryd i’w gilydd,
  • Bydd achlysuron pan fydd y plentyn yn cael siom gan nad oedd wedi cyrraedd y toiled mewn pryd.
  • Mae angen i’r gweithiwr gofal plant fod yn sensitif gan gynnig anogaeth a chefnogaeth pan fydd hyn yn digwydd.
  • Pan fydd plentyn yn cael damwain, mae angen ei newid mewn lle preifat fel na fydd plant eraill yn medru ei weld.

Mae’n hollol naturiol i blentyn bach wlychu’r gwely yn y nos er ei fod yn cadw’n sych yn ystod y dydd. Bydd hyn yn peidio wrth iddo dyfu’n hŷn a mynd trwy’r dydd heb gael damweiniau.

Mae datblygu’r sgil i ddefnyddio’r toiled yn gam mawr i blentyn ar gyfer meithrin sgiliau annibyniaeth:

  • bydd yn mynd trwy newidiadau
  • bydd yn gorfod newid o wisgo cewyn sydd wedi bod yn ffitio’n glud, i wisgo dillad isaf sydd yn llawer llai swmpus
  • bydd yn gorfod gwneud penderfyniadau ynglŷn â phryd y mae angen mynd i’r toiled
  • bydd yn gorfod ymdopi pan fydd yn cael damweiniau
  • bydd gweld pawb arall yn defnyddio’r toiled yn gam positif
  • mae’n bwysig dangos parch i’r plentyn gan adael iddo ddewis os yw am gau drws y toiled ai peidio
  • mae angen i’r gweithiwr gofal plant fod wrth law rhag ofn bod angen cymorth ar y plentyn
  • mae angen i’r plentyn bach ddysgu sut mae sychu eu hunain yn gywir
  • mae hefyd angen dysgu am bwysigrwydd golchi dwylo ar ôl bod yn y toiled
  • mae angen cadarnhau’r arferion hyn o’r cychwyn cyntaf.

Pa bynnag ffordd y mae’r plentyn bach yn dysgu defnyddio’r toiled, mae angen ei fod yn derbyn cefnogaeth bositif gan ei rieni/gofalwyr a’r gweithwyr gofal plant. Efallai na fydd am ddefnyddio’r cewynnau a phants tynnu i fyny o gwbl neu fe fydd yn gwrthod defnyddio’r poti ac angen mynd i’r toiled yn syth. Beth bynnag fydd dewis y plentyn, rhaid ei gefnogi er mwyn datblygu’r arfer yn llwyddiannus. Gellir cynnig atgyfnerthiad drwy roi gwobr i’r plentyn am ddefnyddio’r poti neu’r toiled. Gellir cynnig tegan i ddiddori’r plentyn pan fydd yn eistedd ar y poti/ toiled er mwyn sicrhau ei fod yn aros yno am ddigon hir. Mae rhoi clod am basio dŵr neu garthion yn ffordd bositif i ddangos parch at y plentyn. Gellir hefyd ddefnyddio siart sticeri fel cymhelliant er mwyn annog y weithred hon a’i gwneud yn un llawn hwyl a sbri i’r plentyn bach. Mae’r atgyfnerthiad yn dibynnu’n union ar bersonoliaeth y plentyn bach a sut mae rhieni/gofalwyr yn dymuno ei weithredu. Mae’n bwysig bod yr holl staff o fewn y lleoliad yn ymwybodol o drefn pob plentyn unigol wrth ddysgu defnyddio’r toiled. Bydd hyn yn hwyluso’r broses o ddysgu.

Darllen pellach:

Hint 5: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Modi est praesentium earum exercitationem, accusantium molestiae asperiores reiciendis aliquam doloribus, delectus, cumque odio omnis rem, aliquid et. Quisquam eius, incidunt ab.

Awgrymiadau 5: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Modi est praesentium earum exercitationem, accusantium molestiae asperiores reiciendis aliquam doloribus, delectus, cumque odio omnis rem, aliquid et. Quisquam eius, incidunt ab.

Ensuring that a baby sleeps in a safe environment and position

Sicrhau bod babanod yn cysgu mewn amgylchedd a safle diogel

A sleeping baby

Newborn babies spend most of their time asleep. It is essential that they sleep in a safe environment and position. Some babies die unexpectedly in their sleep. This is known as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or cot death. Adults should be advised not to smoke when the baby is present. The home, car and setting should be smoke-free. Parents/carers and childcare childcare workers are advised to follow specific advice to avoid the syndrome. When putting the baby to sleep, they must follow the guidelines below:

  • The baby should be placed on their back to sleep, both night and day. A healthy baby will not choke in this position. They should not be placed to lie on their stomach or on their side. When the child is old enough, they will roll over and sleep in the most comfortable position.
  • The baby's feet must touch the end of the cot. This is known as the 'feet to foot' position. Bed linen should not be able to reach over the baby's shoulders.
  • The baby's cot should be kept by the parents/carers' bed for the first 6 months. If the baby sleeps in a cot at the setting, the sleeping room should be supervised.
  • The mattress should be flat and firm; soft mattresses and big beanbags are not suitable.
  • The blanket should not cover the baby's head.
  • The room should not be too hot; 16 - 20° is a suitable temperature range.
  • Do not let the baby get too hot.
  • Do not put too many clothes or blankets on the baby. If the weather is very warm, the baby may not need any bed linen.
  • Do not use a quilt or a pillow.
  • Do not place a hot water bottle in the baby's cot/crib.
  • The baby must not inhale cigarette smoke.

Childcare workers can provide advice to parents on the importance of keeping their baby safe when sleeping:

  • It is important not to use pillows in case of suffocation.
  • The bed clothes must not cover the baby's face and head, making them too hot and possibly leading to suffocation.
  • It is better to advise parents/carers to avoid sharing a bed with their baby.
  • The baby may fall out of the bed or become crushed between the mattress and the wall.
  • Parents/carers may turn over in their sleep and suffocate the baby.
  • Parents/carers should not share a bed with their baby if they have been drinking alcohol and/or taking drugs.
  • Parents/carers should not sleep with their baby if they have been smoking.
  • If the baby was very small at birth or born prematurely, it is better not to share a bed with them.
  • If parents/carers share the same bed as their baby, it is essential that they never leave the baby unattended.
  • The safest place for a baby to sleep is in their own crib in the same room as the parents/carers.
  • Ignoring such advice could lead to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

Breastfeeding protects the baby from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and the more babies fed like this, the better. It is also said that giving babies dummies when they go to sleep may reduce the risk. Although letting the baby sleep in your arms after feeding them is wonderful, you must take care not to fall asleep in your chair whilst holding them. Falling out of the childcare workers arms could lead to serious harm.

You must phone 999 and ask for an ambulance if the baby:

  • has stopped breathing or has turned blue
  • is unresponsive
  • has trouble focusing
  • is fitting
  • cannot wake up.

Further reading:

Mae babanod newydd-anedig yn treulio'r rhan fwyaf o'u hamser yn cysgu ac mae angen i hynny ddigwydd mewn amgylchedd a lleoliad diogel. Mae rhai babanod yn marw'n annisgwyl yn eu cwsg. Gelwir hyn yn Syndrom Marwolaeth Sydyn Babanod (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, SIDS) neu farwolaeth yn y crud. Mae angen cynghori oedolion i beidio ag ysmygu yn ymyl baban a dylai’r cartref, y car a’r lleoliad fod yn ddi-fwg. Wrth roi’r baban i gysgu rhaid dilyn y canllawiau canlynol:

  • Mae angen rhoi'r baban i orwedd ar ei gefn, a hyn yn ystod y dydd a’r nos. Ni fydd baban iach yn tagu yn y safle hwn. Ni ddylid ei roi i orwedd ar ei fol nac ar ei ochr. Pan fydd yn ddigon hen, bydd yn rholio drosodd a chysgu yn y safle sydd fwyaf cysurus iddo.
  • Rhaid gwneud yn siŵr bod traed y baban yn cyffwrdd gwaelod y cot. Gelwir hyn yn safle ‘traed wrth droed’. Bydd angen sicrhau nad yw’r dillad gwely yn gallu cyrraedd dros ysgwyddau’r baban.
  • Dylai cot y baban fod wrth ymyl gwely rhieni/gofalwyr am y 6 mis cyntaf. Os yw’r baban yn cysgu mewn cot yn y lleoliad, dylai’r ystafell gysgu gael eu goruchwylio.
  • Dylai’r fatras fod yn wastad ac yn gadarn, nid yw matras feddal neu fagiau ffa mawr yn addas.
  • Ni ddylai’r blanced orchuddio pen y baban.
  • Ni ddylai’r ystafell fod yn rhy boeth; mae 16 - 20° yn ystod tymheredd addas.
  • Ni ddylid gadael i’r baban fynd yn rhy boeth.
  • Ni ddylid rhoi gormod o ddillad a blancedi ar y baban. Os yw’r tywydd yn gynnes iawn efallai na fydd angen ddillad gwely ar y baban.
  • Ni ddylid defnyddio cwilt na gobennydd.
  • Ni ddylid byth â rhoi potel ddŵr poeth yng nghot/ crud y baban.
  • Rhaid sicrhau nad yw’r baban yn anadlu mwg sigaréts.

Mae gweithwyr gofal plant yn gallu cynnig cyngor i rieni/gofalwyr am bwysigrwydd cadw eu baban yn ddiogel wrth gysgu:

  • Mae’n bwysig peidio defnyddio gobennydd rhag ofn i’r baban fygu.
  • Bydd rhaid sicrhau nad yw’r dillad gwely’n medru gorchuddio wyneb a phen y baban gan achosi iddo fynd yn llawer rhy boeth ac efallai fygu.
  • Mae’n well cynghori rhieni/gofalwyr i beidio rhannu gwely gyda’u baban.
  • Gall y baban gwympo allan o’r gwely neu gael ei wasgu rhwng y fatras a’r wal.
  • Gall rieni/gofalwyr droi yn eu cwsg a mygu’r baban.
  • Ni ddylai rhieni/gofalwyr gysgu yn yr un gwely â’u baban os ydynt wedi bod yn yfed alcohol a/neu gymryd cyffuriau.
  • Ni ddylai rhieni/gofalwyr gysgu gyda’i baban os ydynt wedi bod yn ysmygu.
  • Os cafodd y baban ei eni’n fach iawn neu cyn amser, mae’n well peidio rhannu gwely gydag e.
  • Os yw rhieni/gofalwyr yn rhannu’r un gwely â’u baban, mae’n hanfodol nad ydynt ar unrhyw adeg yn gadael y baban ar ei ben ei hun.
  • Y man mwyaf diogel i faban gysgu yw mewn crud ei hunan yn yr un ystafell â’r rhieni/gofalwyr.
  • Gall anwybyddu cyngor o’r fath arwain at Syndrom Marwolaeth Sydyn Babanod.

Mae bwydo o’r fron yn amddiffyn y baban rhag Syndrom Marwolaeth Sydyn Babanod. Gorau po fwyaf y caiff y baban ei fwydo o’r fron. Dywedir hefyd bod rhoi dymïau i fabanod wrth iddynt fynd i gysgu yn gallu lleihau’r risg. Er ei fod yn hyfryd i riant/gofalwr gael y baban i gysgu yn y breichiau ar ôl bwydo rhaid bod yn ofalus rhag cwympo i gysgu mewn cadair wrth ei fagu. Byddai cwympo o’r breichiau’n gallu arwain at achosi niwed difrifol.

Bydd angen ffonio 999 a gofyn am yr ambiwlans os yw’r baban:

  • yn peidio anadlu neu’n troi’n las
  • ddim yn ymateb
  • yn methu ffocysu
  • yn cael ffit
  • yn methu deffro.

Darllen pellach:

Hint 6: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Modi est praesentium earum exercitationem, accusantium molestiae asperiores reiciendis aliquam doloribus, delectus, cumque odio omnis rem, aliquid et. Quisquam eius, incidunt ab.

Awgrymiadau 6: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Modi est praesentium earum exercitationem, accusantium molestiae asperiores reiciendis aliquam doloribus, delectus, cumque odio omnis rem, aliquid et. Quisquam eius, incidunt ab.

Monitoring personal care

Monitro arferion gofal corfforol

Happy Children

Physical care is an essential part of a baby/toddler's life and an integral step towards developing independence. It promotes people's health and well-being and develops their confidence and self-esteem to play an active part in society. The childcare worker needs to work in a way that considers each child as an individual and this planning work needs to be shared with other workers. Childcare workers need to work closely with all the staff within the setting to find what is best for babies and toddlers.

A relationship should be developed with the parents/carers as they know their children best and have planned for their children's physical care routines from the outset. This will enable the childcare worker to formulate a specific daily routine for the baby and the child in order to meet their needs. It is essential that parents/carers are aware of the setting's arrangements with regard to physical care routines. The childcare worker should encourage them to ask any questions if doing so would lead to a better understanding of the arrangements. Babies and toddlers cannot say if anything is bothering them or if they have had a sleep in the morning before coming to nursery in the afternoon. The relationship between the setting and the home is essential in order to ensure the best possible care for the baby/toddler.

The childcare worker needs to keep records so that information about babies/toddlers is exchanged and recorded in line with the setting's policy. Maintaining such records will provide information to all staff within the setting about physical care routines, such as sleep, going to the toilet or hand washing and skin care. There is no specific format for recording physical care routines, but each individual should have their own record sheet as each baby/toddler has different routines at different times. This will provide consistency of care. The records need to be clear and reliable. The correct record sheet should be used for each baby/toddler and the details should include the time and the action taken. The records need to be detailed:

  • Eli slept between 2 and 3 o' clock.
  • Jac drank 120ml of milk at 10 o' clock.
  • Megan had a soiled nappy at 1 o' clock.

Every child's physical care routines should be monitored regularly to check their effectiveness. The routines should be appropriate for the baby/toddler and should ensure that they are kept comfortable. If the child is uncomfortable or frustrated, the routine should be revisited, and changes made, so that the child feels content. As the baby grows and develops, physical care routines will change, and the childcare worker will need to work in a way which acknowledges these changes.

As babies grow older, the records will become shorter as toddlers will develop their communication skills and say if they need something, e.g. they want to go to the toilet or wash their hands. The setting may have a booklet to be shared between the setting and the home. There will be space for parents/carers to make comments on any changes to the toddler's care routines or if they have started any new physical routine, e.g. using the potty.

When undertaking physical care routines with children, the childcare worker should be aware of any possible risks. For example, an infection developing when changing a nappy, damage to the back when lifting a baby from the cot. It is essential that the childcare worker works in a way that ensures these risks do not affect their health. The childcare worker should read and understand the setting's policies in order to protect themselves from any dangers when caring for babies and toddlers. For example, disposable gloves must be worn when changing nappies and hands must be washed after helping a toddler to use the potty. Such procedures will protect the baby/toddler and the childcare worker.

Mae gofal corfforol yn rhan hollbwysig o fywyd y baban/plentyn bach ac yn gam annatod tuag at ddatblygu annibyniaeth. Mae’n hyrwyddo iechyd a llesiant unigolion a’u hyrwyddo i ddatblygu hyder a hunan barch i gymryd rhan weithredol o fewn y gymdeithas. Mae angen i’r gweithiwr gofal plant weithio mewn ffordd sy’n ystyried pob plentyn fel unigolyn ac mae angen i’r cynllunio hwn gael ei rannu ymysg gweithwyr eraill. Mae angen gweithio’n agos gyda’r holl staff o fewn y lleoliad er mwyn darganfod beth sydd orau ar gyfer y babanod a’r plant bach.

Mae’n rhaid datblygu perthynas gyda rhieni/gofalwyr gan mai nhw sy’n adnabod eu plant orau a nhw sydd wedi cynllunio ar gyfer arferion gofal corfforol eu plant o’r cychwyn cyntaf. Bydd hyn yn galluogi’r gweithiwr gofal plant i lunio trefn ddyddiol benodol ar gyfer y baban a’r plentyn er mwyn diwallu ei anghenion. Mae’n hanfodol bod rhieni/gofalwyr yn ymwybodol o drefn y lleoliad ar gyfer gweithredu arferion gofal corfforol. Dylai’r gweithiwr gofal plant eu hannog i holi unrhyw gwestiynau os yw hynny’n arwain at well dealltwriaeth o’r drefn. Nid yw babanod a phlant bach yn medru dweud os oes rhywbeth yn eu poeni neu os ydynt wedi cael cwsg yn y bore cyn cyrraedd y feithrinfa yn y prynhawn. Mae’r perthynas rhwng y lleoliad a’r cartref yn hanfodol os am sicrhau gofal gorau posib i’r baban/plentyn bach.

Mae angen i’r gweithiwr gofal plant weithredu dull cofnodi fel bod gwybodaeth am y babanod/ plant bach yn cael ei gyfnewid yn unol â pholisi’r lleoliad. Bydd cynnal system gofnodi o’r fath yn rhoi gwybodaeth i holl staff y lleoliad ynghylch arferion gofal corfforol megis cwsg, defnyddio’r toiled neu olchi dwylo a gofal y croen. Nid oes fformat penodol ar gyfer cofnodi arferion gofal corfforol, ond mae’n rhaid i bawb dderbyn siart cofnodi ei hunain gan fod pob baban/ plentyn bach yn ymgymryd ag arferion gwahanol ar amseroedd gwahanol. Bydd hyn yn arwain at gysondeb wrth ofalu amdanynt. Bydd angen i’r cofnodion fod yn glir ac yn ddibynadwy. Rhaid gofalu cofnodi am y baban/ plentyn bach cywir a bydd angen i’r manylion gynnwys yr amser a’r weithred a wnaeth gymryd lle.

Mae angen i’r cofnodion ddangos manylder:

  • Cysgodd Eli rhwng 2 a 3 o’r gloch.
  • Gwnaeth Jac yfed 120ml o’i laeth am 10 o’r gloch.
  • Cewyn budr gan Megan am 1 o’r gloch.

Mae angen monitro arferion gofal corfforol pob plentyn yn rheolaidd er mwyn gweld a yw’n effeithiol. Mae angen bod y drefn yn gweddu i’r baban/plentyn bach ac yn ei gadw’n gysurus. Os yw’r plentyn yn anghysurus neu’n rhwystredig mae angen ail edrych ar y drefn a gwneud newidiadau fel bod y plentyn yn ddiddig. Wrth i’r baban dyfu a datblygu, bydd arferion gofal corfforol yn newid a bydd angen i’r gweithiwr gofal plant weithio mewn ffordd sy’n cydnabod y newidiadau hyn.

Wrth i fabanod dyfu’n hŷn, bydd y cofnodion yn lleihau gan fod plant bach yn datblygu i gyfathrebu a dweud os ydynt eisiau rhywbeth, e.e. eisiau mynd i’r toiled neu eisiau golchi’r dwylo. Efallai bydd gan y lleoliad lyfryn a gaiff ei rannu rhwng y lleoliad a’r cartref. Bydd lle i rieni/gofalwyr roi sylwadau am newid mewn arferion gofal y plentyn bach neu os yw wedi dechrau ar ryw arfer corfforol newydd, e.e. dechrau defnyddio’r poti.

Wrth ymgymryd ag arferion gofal corfforol plant, mae angen bod yr gweithiwr gofal plant yn ymwybodol o risgiau posibl. Er enghraifft, datblygu haint wrth newid cewyn, gwneud niwed i’r cefn wrth godi baban o’r crud. Mae’n hanfodol bod yr gweithiwr gofal plant yn gweithio mewn ffordd sy’n atal y risgiau yma rhag effeithio ar ei iechyd. Mae angen i’r gweithiwr gofal plant ddarllen a dilyn polisïau’r lleoliad er mwyn amddiffyn ei hun rhag unrhyw beryglon wrth ofalu ar ôl babanod a phlant bach. Er enghraifft, rhaid gwisgo menig tafladwy wrth newid cewyn a golchi dwylo ar ôl cynorthwyo plentyn bach i ddefnyddio’r poti. Bydd gweithdrefnau o’r fath yn amddiffyn y baban/ plentyn bach a’r gweithiwr gofal plant.

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