Poverty and childhood

Tlodi yn ystod plentyndod

Poverty

Over a quarter of the children in Wales live in poverty, which means that their family’s household income is below 60% of the average annual income.

Poverty can have a devastating effect on a child’s life.

Education

The Department for Education statistics show that by the end of primary school, pupils receiving free school meals are estimated to be almost three terms behind their more well-off class-mates.

By the time these children reach GCSE level, their pass rate may be up to two grades lower than that of their wealthier peers.

The inability to afford school essentials such as uniform and books and being unable to pay for school trips can have a negative effect on a child’s self-esteem and how they view school.

Children living in poverty have lower life expectations than their more affluent peers.

Social/Emotional

A lack of opportunity to attend events or be part of a club can have an impact on a child’s ability to sustain friendships.

Children can be bullied because of the obvious outward appearances of poverty.

Strain within families due to financial worries can lead children to become anxious about whether there will be enough money to support their needs.

Children who grow up in poverty are three times more likely to develop mental health issues.

Health

The birthweight of children born into poverty can be up to 200g less than babies born to affluent parents.

Children who experience poverty into adulthood can see their life expectancy reduced by up to eight years.

Children living in poverty are more likely to suffer chronic illnesses leading to frequent absences from school.

Mae dros chwarter plant Cymru yn byw mewn tlodi, sy'n golygu bod incwm aelwyd eu teulu yn is na 60% o'r incwm blynyddol cyfartalog.

Gall tlodi gael effaith ddinistriol ar fywyd plentyn.

Addysg

Mae ystadegau'r Adran Addysg yn dangos erbyn diwedd yr ysgol gynradd bod plant sy'n derbyn prydau ysgol am ddim tua tri thymor y tu ôl i'w cyd-ddisgyblion mwy cyfoethog.

Erbyn yr amser mae'r plant hyn yn cyrraedd lefel TGAU, gall eu cyfradd llwyddiant fod hyd at ddwy radd yn is na rhai eu cyfoedion mwy cyfoethog.

Gall methu fforddio hanfodion ysgol fel gwisg ysgol a llyfrau a methu talu am dripiau ysgol gael effaith negyddol ar hunan-barch a sut maen nhw'n ystyried yr ysgol.

Mae disgwyliadau bywyd plant sy'n byw mewn tlodi yn is na rhai eu cyfoedion mwy cyfoethog.

Cymdeithasol/Emosiynol

Gall diffyg cyfleoedd i fynd i ddigwyddiadau neu fod yn rhan o glwb gael effaith ar allu plentyn i gynnal cyfeillgarwch.

Gall plant gael eu bwlio oherwydd arwyddion allanol amlwg o dlodi.

Gall straen o fewn teuluoedd oherwydd pryderon ariannol arwain plant i boeni a fydd digon o arian i gynnal eu hanghenion.

Mae plant sy'n tyfu i fyny mewn tlodi dair gwaith yn fwy tebygol o ddatblygu problemau iechyd meddwl.

Iechyd

Gall pwysau geni plant sy'n cael eu geni mewn tlodi fod hyd at 200g yn llai na babanod sy'n cael eu geni i rieni cyfoethog.

Gall plant sy'n profi tlodi wrth dyfu'n oedolion weld eu disgwyliad oes yn lleihau i hyd at wyth mlynedd.

Mae plant sy'n byw mewn tlodi yn fwy tebygol o ddioddef o salwch cronig gan arwain at absenoldebau rheolaidd o'r ysgol.

Study the data and answer the questions.

Astudiwch y data ac atebwch y cwestiynau.

Question 1

Cwestiwn 1

Study the graphs – what do you notice about the percentage of adults in poverty in Wales and the percentage of children in poverty?

Astudiwch y graffiau – beth ydych chi'n ei sylwi am ganran yr oedolion mewn tlodi yng Nghymru a chanran y plant sy'n byw mewn tlodi?

Graph showing estimated percentage of the population in poverty, 2019-20 to 2021-22 Graph showing estimated percentage of the population in poverty, 2019-20 to 2021-22
Graph showing estimated percentage of children in poverty, 2019-20 to 2021-22 Graph showing estimated percentage of children in poverty, 2019-20 to 2021-22

Suggested response: In the adult graph, Wales has the third highest percentage of adults living in poverty, and in the children’s graph, Wales has the fourth highest percentage of children living in poverty. However, the percentage of children living in poverty in Wales is 12.4% higher than the number of adults.

Ymateb awgrymedig: Yn y graff oedolion, mae gan Gymru'r ganran uchaf o oedolion sy'n byw mewn tlodi, ac yn y graff plant mae Cymru yn y pedwerydd safle o ran y ganran fwyaf o blant sy'n byw mewn tlodi. Fodd bynnag, mae canran y plant sy'n byw mewn tlodi yng Nghymru 12.4% yn uwch na chanran yr oedolion.

Question 2

Cwestiwn 2

What does this graph tell us about poverty levels in Wales compared to the rest of the UK over the last twenty years?

Beth mae'r graff hwn yn ei ddweud wrthon ni am lefelau tlodi yng Nghymru o'u cymharu â gweddill y Deyrnas Unedig dros yr ugain mlynedd diwethaf?

Percentage of people in each UK country who were living in relative income poverty (after housing costs), three-financial-year averages Percentage of people in each UK country who were living in relative income poverty (after housing costs), three-financial-year averages
Source: Welsh Government – Poverty in Wales statistics https://bit.ly/2DxAsGDFfynhonnell: Llywodraeth Cymru – ystadegau Tlodi yng Nghymru https://bit.ly/2DxAsGD

Suggested response: Wales has consistently had the highest percentage of individuals living in poverty over the last twenty years.

Ymateb awgrymedig: Mae Cymru wedi bod yn gartref i’r ganran fwyaf o unigolion sy'n byw mewn tlodi dros yr ugain mlynedd diwethaf.

Question 3

Cwestiwn 3

The graph shows that lone parent families make up the highest proportion of individuals living in poverty. Why do you think that women living alone with no children is the second highest?

Mae'r graff yn dangos mai teuluoedd un rhiant yw'r gyfran fwyaf o unigolion sy'n byw mewn tlodi. Yn eich barn chi, pam mae menywod sy'n byw ar eu pen eu hunain heb blant yn yr ail safle?

Graph showing percentage of people in each family type in Wales who were living in relative income poverty (after housing costs), 2014-2015 to 2016-17 Graph showing percentage of people in each family type in Wales who were living in relative income poverty (after housing costs), 2014-2015 to 2016-17
Source: Welsh Government – Poverty in Wales statistics https://bit.ly/2DxAsGDFfynhonnell: Llywodraeth Cymru – ystadegau Tlodi yng Nghymru https://bit.ly/2DxAsGD

Suggested response: Women are much more likely to be in part-time work, which means they will earn less; not just because they work less hours but also because part-time positions tend to be less well-paid.
The gender pay gap means that women will have less earnings of their own than men working in the same industry.

Ymateb awgrymedig: Mae menywod yn fwy tebygol o fod mewn gwaith rhan amser, sy'n golygu y byddan nhw'n ennill llai; nid yn unig gan eu bod nhw'n gweithio oriau llai ond hefyd gan fod swyddi rhan amser yn tueddu i dalu llai.
Mae'r bwlch cyflog rhwng dynion a menywod yn golygu bydd menywod yn ennill llai o arian na dynion sy'n gweithio yn yr un diwydiant.

Question 4

Cwestiwn 4

Study the map. What percentage of the jobs are paid less than the living wage for your county? How does that compare to Blaenau Gwent, the county with the highest percentage, or Cardiff, the county with the lowest?

Astudiwch y map. Pa ganran o'r swyddi sy'n talu llai na'r cyflog byw ar gyfer eich sir? Sut mae hynny'n cymharu â Blaenau Gwent, y sir gyda'r ganran fwyaf, neu Caerdydd, y sir gyda'r ganran leiaf?

Map showing % of jobs that are paid less than the applicable Living Wage Foundation living wage Map showing % of jobs that are paid less than the applicable Living Wage Foundation living wage
Source: Senedd Research https://bit.ly/2GyF1PAFfynhonnell: Senedd Ymchwil http://bit.ly/2tuF9Kg