How self-identity affects well-being

Sut mae hunaniaeth yn effeithio ar lesiant

Self identity

The government defines well-being as ‘a positive physical, social and mental state’. Self-identity affects mental well-being and how an individual copes with challenging times.

Self-identity is a compilation of self-evaluations and the beliefs or perceptions an individual has about themselves. It directly affects emotional responses, decision-making and behaviour. It also includes the feedback individuals receive from others and how they interact with them.

For these reasons, understanding self-identity is crucial for an individual to understand themselves and their well-being. Self-identity can be an asset that helps an individual thrive, by building a healthier self-image and improving self-esteem.

Diffiniad y llywodraeth o lesiant yw ‘cyflwr corfforol, cymdeithasol a meddyliol cadarnhaol’. Mae hunaniaeth yn effeithio ar lesiant meddyliol a sut mae unigolyn yn ymdopi ag amseroedd heriol.

Mae hunaniaeth yn gyfuniad o hunan-werthusiadau a'r credoau neu ganfyddiadau sydd gan unigolyn amdano ei hun. Mae'n cael effaith uniongyrchol ar ymatebion emosiynol, penderfyniadau ac ymddygiad. Mae hefyd yn cynnwys yr adborth bydd unigolion yn ei dderbyn gan eraill a sut maen nhw'n rhyngweithio gyda nhw.

Oherwydd y rhesymau hyn, mae deall hunaniaeth yn hollbwysig er mwyn i unigolyn ddeall ei hun a'i lesiant. Gall hunaniaeth fod yn ased sy'n helpu unigolyn i ffynnu, drwy feithrin hunanddelwedd gryfach a gwella hunan-barch.

What informs self-identity?

Beth yw sail hunaniaeth?

Excited man

Self-identity is what helps an individual distinguish themselves from others; it’s what makes them see themselves as individuals who have a consistent identity.

Self-identity is sometimes used interchangeably with self-esteem, self-worth, self-image, or self-concept. In truth, self-esteem and self-image are aspects of self-concept.

Three aspects which are widely agreed to inform our self-concept include:

  • The view an individual has of themselves (also called self-image)
    e.g. “I am an outgoing individual.”
  • The value an individual places on themselves (also called self-esteem)
    e.g. “I am likeable.”
  • Who an individual aspires to be (also called the ideal-self)
    e.g. “I am a good individual.”

Self-image and self-esteem can influence an individual’s ideal-self; the imagined or ideal individual that they aspire to become. These three aspects of self-identity have significance for an individual’s well-being, how they navigate the world, and their connections to others.

Hunaniaeth yw'r hyn sy'n helpu unigolyn i wahaniaethu rhyngddo ei hun ag eraill; dyma beth sy’n gwneud iddo weld ei hun fel unigolyn â hunaniaeth gyson.

Mae’r term hunaniaeth weithiau'n cael ei ddefnyddio yn gydgyfnewidiol â hunan-barch, hunan-werth, hunanddelwedd, neu hunangysyniad. Mewn gwirionedd, mae hunan-barch a hunanddelwedd yn agweddau ar hunangysyniad.

Cytunir yn gyffredinol bod y tair agwedd ganlynol yn sail i'n hunangysyniad:

  • Y ffordd mae unigolyn yn meddwl amdano ei hun (enw arall ar hyn yw hunan-ddelwedd)
    er enghraifft: “Rydw i'n unigolyn allblyg.”
  • Y gwerth mae unigolyn yn ei roi arno ei hun (enw arall ar hyn yw hunan-barch)
    er enghraifft: “Rydw i'n hoffus.”
  • Pwy mae'r unigolyn yn dyheu am ei fod (enw arall ar hyn yw'r hunan delfrydol)
    er enghraifft: “Rydw i'n unigolyn da.”

Gall hunanddelwedd a hunan-barch ddylanwadu ar hunan delfrydol yr unigolyn; yr unigolyn delfrydol neu ddychmygol mae'n dyheu am fod. Mae'r tair agwedd hyn ar hunaniaeth yn arwyddocaol i lesiant yr unigolyn, sut mae'n ymdopi â'r byd, a'i gysylltiadau ag eraill.

What is self-identity?

Beth yw hunaniaeth?

Use your preferred graphics software to upload your photo then tag the image with examples of the following about yourself:

  • The view you have of yourself.
  • The value you place on yourself.
  • The individual you aspire to be.

Uwch lwythwch eich ffotograff yma gan ddefnyddio meddalwedd graffeg o'ch dewis chi yna tagiwch y llun ag enghreifftiau o'r canlynol amdanoch chi eich hun.

  • Eich barn amdanoch chi eich hun.
  • Y gwerth rydych chi'n ei roi arnoch chi eich hun.
  • Yr unigolyn rydych chi'n dyheu am fod.

How others see you

Watch the film

Sut mae eraill yn eich gweld chi

Gwyliwch y ffilm

Using the film as a stimulus, place the photo of yourself from the previous activity in an envelope and pass it around the class. Each member of the class must note down something they like or admire about you.

Once your photo comes back to you, read the comments. Has this changed the way you view yourself? Or how you thought others saw you?

Gan ddefnyddio'r ffilm fel symbyliad, rhowch y ffotograff o'ch hun o'r gweithgaredd blaenorol mewn amlen a'i phasio o amgylch y dosbarth. Rhaid i bob aelod o'r dosbarth ysgrifennu rhywbeth maen nhw'n ei hoffi neu'n ei edmygu amdanoch chi.

Pan fyddwch yn cael eich ffotograff yn ôl, darllenwch y sylwadau. A yw hyn wedi newid y ffordd rydych chi'n edrych ar eich hun? Neu ai dyma sut roeddech chi'n meddwl roedd eraill yn eich gweld chi?

Where does self-identity come from?

O ble daw ein hunaniaeth?

Handprint

Individuals begin developing their self-identity very early in life, starting from about two months old.

An example of this is when a baby smiles at their mother and their mother smiles back at them. The baby is beginning to gain a self-identity, which helps him gradually realise himself as a distinct individual from his mother.

These early experiences affect brain development, creating the neurological foundations for healthy emotional and social interactions later in life.

As children grow older, they describe themselves using a growing number of categories as they build their self-identity. At first, these categories will often be based on broad self-descriptions.

“I am a girl”

“I am three years old”

“I am not a baby’’

The range of categories individuals use to describe themselves becomes more complex as they get older.

As self-identity becomes more elaborate over time, it is influenced by:

  • personality traits
  • personal preferences
  • values and cultural beliefs
  • skills and attributes
  • labels (given by others)
  • social roles
  • early childhood relationships and other relationships
  • emotional development
  • age and gender
  • appearance
  • education
  • sexual orientation
  • life experiences (e.g. bereavement and illnesses).

Mae unigolion yn dechrau datblygu eu hunaniaeth yn gynnar iawn mewn bywyd, gan ddechrau pan maen nhw tua dau fis oed.

Un enghraifft o hyn yw pan fydd babi yn gwenu ar ei fam a bydd y fam yn gwenu'n ôl arno. Mae'r babi yn dechrau datblygu hunaniaeth a bydd hyn yn ei helpu yn raddol i ddeall ei fod yn unigolyn ar wahân i'w fam.

Mae'r profiadau cynnar hyn yn effeithio ar ddatblygiad yr ymennydd, gan osod y sylfeini niwrolegol ar gyfer rhyngweithio emosiynol a chymdeithasol iach yn ddiweddarach mewn bywyd.

Wrth i blant dyfu'n hŷn, maen nhw'n defnyddio nifer cynyddol o gategorïau i ddisgrifio eu hunain wrth iddyn nhw ddatblygu eu hunaniaeth. Ar y dechrau, bydd y categorïau hyn yn aml yn seiliedig ar hunan-ddisgrifiadau eang.

“Merch ydw i ”

“Rydw i'n dair oed”

“Dydw i ddim yn fabi’’

Bydd amrediad y categorïau mae unigolion yn eu defnyddio i ddisgrifio eu hunain yn dod yn fwy cymhleth wrth iddyn nhw dyfu'n hŷn.

Wrth i hunaniaeth ddod yn fwy cymhleth dros amser, mae'r canlynol yn dylanwadu arni:

  • nodweddion personoliaeth
  • hoff ddewisiadau personol
  • gwerthoedd a chredoau diwylliannol
  • sgiliau a rhinweddau
  • labeli (sy'n cael eu rhoi gan eraill)
  • rolau cymdeithasol
  • perthnasoedd plentyndod cynnar a pherthnasoedd eraill
  • datblygiad emosiynol
  • oed a rhywedd
  • ymddangosiad
  • addysg
  • cyfeiriadedd rhywiol
  • profiadau bywyd (e.e. profedigaeth a salwch).

Building self-identity

Meithrin hunaniaeth

Imagine your self-identity is a lego brick wall.

With each new belief, experience, thought or feeling you are adding an extra brick to the wall. As you age, the wall gets higher with each new experience.

Create your own wall. Click on a brick and type in a word which is unique to you such as a personality trait e.g. Shy

Dychmygwch mai wal frics lego yw eich hunaniaeth.

Rydych chi'n ychwanegu bricsen arall i'w wal gyda phob cred, profiad, syniad neu deimlad newydd. Wrth i chi heneiddio, mae'r wal yn mynd yn uwch gyda phob profiad newydd.

Ewch ati i greu eich wal eich hun. Cliciwch ar fricsen a theipiwch air sy'n unigryw i chi, fel nodwedd personoliaeth e.e. Swil

Sexual orientationCyfeiriadedd rhywiol
AppearanceYmddangosiad
Age and genderOed a rhywedd
RelationshipsPerthnasoedd
Social rolesRolau cymdeithasol
Labels that others have ascribed to us Labeli mae eraill wedi eu rhoi i ni
Skills & attributesSgiliau a rhinweddau
Value & cultural beliefsGwerthoedd a chredoau diwylliannol
Personal preferencesHoff ddewisiadau personol
Personality traitsNodweddion personoliaeth

What is self-image?

Beth yw hunan-ddelwedd?

Couple looking in the mirror

Self-image is not just what an individual sees when they look into a mirror but it is also what they think and how they feel about that reflection in the mirror.

Self-image can be understood as the opinion that an individual has about themselves. This opinion is influenced by many factors, such as life experiences and relationships with other individuals.

Our self-image descriptions often include:

  • physical descriptions
    “I have long hair”, “I am short”
  • social roles
    student; daughter/son; pet-owner
  • personality traits
    extraversion; agreeableness
  • existential statements
    “I’m a human being”

Younger individuals tend to describe their self-image using personality characteristics (e.g. outgoing; shy) while older individuals tend to use social roles to describe their self-image (e.g. care-giver; career-driven).

It can be helpful to think about self-image as an individual’s ‘comfort zone’. When an individual acts in a way that does not fit within their self-image, or takes them outside of their internalised ‘comfort zone’, they experience discomfort.

It can be difficult for an individual to act outside of their ‘comfort zone’ long term. An individual’s self-image can limit their future possibilities.

Mae hunan-ddelwedd yn fwy na'r hyn mae unigolyn yn ei weld pan mae'n edrych yn y drych, mae hefyd yn cynnwys ei farn am yr adlewyrchiad yn y drych a sut mae'n teimlo amdano.

Mae'n bosibl deall hunan-ddelwedd fel barn unigolyn amdano ei hun. Mae sawl ffactor yn dylanwadu ar y farn hon, fel profiadau bywyd a pherthnasoedd gydag unigolion eraill.

Mae ein disgrifiadau o'n hunan-ddelwedd yn aml yn cynnwys:

  • disgrifiadau corfforol
    “Mae gen i wallt hir”, “Rydw i'n fyr”
  • rolau cymdeithasol
    myfyriwr; merch/mab; perchennog anifail anwes
  • nodweddion personoliaeth
    allblygedd; hawddgarwch
  • gosodiadau dirfodol
    “Rydw i'n fod dynol”

Mae unigolion ifanc yn tueddu i ddisgrifio eu hunan-ddelwedd gan ddefnyddio nodweddion personoliaeth (e.e. allblyg; swil) ond mae unigolion hŷn yn tueddu i ddefnyddio rolau cymdeithasol i ddisgrifio eu hunan-ddelwedd (e.e. gofalwr; unigolion sy'n cael eu gyrru gan eu gyrfa).

Gall fod yn ddefnyddiol i feddwl am hunan-ddelwedd fel 'man cysurus' unigolion. Pan fydd unigolion yn ymddwyn mewn ffordd nad yw'n cyfateb i'w hunan-ddelwedd, neu sy'n mynd â nhw y tu hwnt i'w 'man cysurus' mewnol ’, maen nhw'n teimlo'n anghyfforddus.

Gall fod yn anodd i unigolyn weithredu y tu hwnt i'w 'fan cysurus' yn y tymor hir. Gall hunan-ddelwedd unigolyn gyfyngu ar ei bosibiliadau yn y dyfodol.

Your self-image

Watch the film

Eich hunan-ddelwedd

Gwyliwch y ffilm

Write a short reflection on how you view your own self-image.

Ysgrifennwch fyfyrdod byr ar sut rydych chi'n ystyried eich hunan-ddelwedd personol.

What is self-esteem?

Beth yw hunan-barch?

Strong young woman

Self-esteem, sometimes referred to as ‘self-worth’, is the value that an individual places on himself or herself. Individuals give themselves positive and negative evaluations all the time, often based on how they view themselves in comparison to other individuals.

High self-esteem means that they value themselves highly. This allows them to hold a positive view of themselves and feel optimistic about their future. Individuals with high self-esteem show high levels of confidence and self-acceptance.

“I’m not perfect but I’m constantly improving.”

Low self-esteem means that individuals do not value themselves very highly. They may hold negative views about themselves and feel hopeless about their future. Individuals with low self-esteem often lack confidence and may experience guilt or self-blame when things go wrong.

“It’s all my fault, I can’t do anything right.”

Hunan-barch, sydd weithiau'n cael ei alw'n 'hunan-werth', yw'r gwerth mae unigolyn yn ei roi arno'i hun. Mae unigolion yn gwerthuso eu hunain mewn ffordd gadarnhaol a negyddol drwy'r amser, yn aml yn seiliedig ar sut maen nhw'n eu gweld eu hunain mewn cymhariaeth ag unigolion eraill.

Mae hunan-barch uchel yn golygu eu bod nhw'n rhoi llawer o werth arnyn nhw eu hunain. Mae hyn yn eu galluogi i weld eu hunain mewn ffordd gadarnhaol ac i deimlo’n optimistaidd am eu dyfodol. Mae unigolion â hunan-barch uchel yn hyderus iawn ac yn barod i dderbyn eu hunain.

“Dydw i ddim yn berffaith ond dw i'n gwella drwy'r amser.”

Mae hunan-barch isel yn golygu nad yw unigolion yn rhoi llawer o werth arnyn nhw eu hunain. Gallan nhw eu gweld eu hunain mewn ffordd negyddol a theimlo'n anobeithiol am eu dyfodol. Mae unigolion â hunan-barch isel yn aml yn ddihyder ac maen nhw'n gallu teimlo'n euog neu feio eu hunain pan fydd pethau'n mynd o chwith.

“Fy mai i yw hyn i gyd, dw i ddim yn gallu gwneud dim yn iawn.”

Resilience

Gwydnwch

Stress ball

Self-identity influences how an individual manages their emotional experiences. Life can become more challenging when an individual experiences an unhelpful or distressing emotional response to common difficulties.

A healthy self-identity, indicated by positive self-esteem and a healthy self-image, can build an individual’s resilience and help them thrive despite the normal challenges of life.

For example: Mark got a lower grade on his maths exam than he had hoped for.

He could see this disappointment as an acknowledgement that he has a lot more to learn and perhaps could try doing more hours of studying before the next exam,

or

He could see this as a prediction of how he is going to do badly in all exams in the future.

Mae hunaniaeth yn dylanwadu ar y ffordd mae unigolyn yn rheoli ei brofiadau emosiynol. Gall bywyd ddod yn fwy heriol pan fydd unigolyn yn cael ymateb emosiynol di-fudd neu drallodus i anawsterau cyffredin.

Gall hunaniaeth iach, a nodweddir gan hunan-barch cadarnhaol a hunanddelwedd iach, feithrin gwydnwch unigolyn a'i helpu i ffynnu er gwaethaf heriau arferol bywyd.

Er enghraifft: Cafodd Mark radd is na'r hyn roedd wedi gobeithio ei chael yn ei arholiad mathemateg.

Gallai ystyried y siom hon fel cydnabyddiaeth o'r ffaith fod ganddo lawer mwy i'w ddysgu ac efallai gallai geisio adolygu mwy cyn yr arholiad nesaf,

neu

Gallai weld hyn fel rhagfynegiad o sut bydd yn gwneud yn wael ym mhob arholiad yn y dyfodol.

Relationships

Perthnasoedd

Playing football

Self-identity reflects how an individual feels about themselves in relation to other individuals. Making unhealthy comparisons with others can further damage self-esteem and is linked to a poor self-image. A healthy self-identity enables an individual to interact positively with others, holding both themselves and others in high regard.

An example might be of an athlete who acknowledges the superior ability of his teammate whilst remaining confident in his own ability and his capacity to progress over time.

Mae hunaniaeth yn adlewyrchu'r ffordd mae unigolyn yn teimlo amdano ei hun mewn perthynas ag unigolion eraill. Mae gwneud cymariaethau nad ydyn nhw’n rhai iach gydag eraill yn gallu achosi mwy o niwed i hunan-barch ac mae'n gysylltiedig â hunanddelwedd wael. Mae hunaniaeth iach yn galluogi unigolyn i ryngweithio'n gadarnhaol gydag eraill ac i fod â meddwl uchel o'i hun ac eraill.

Un enghraifft o hyn fyddai athletwr sy'n cydnabod bod cyd-aelod o’i dîm yn well nag ef, ond sy’n dal i deimlo’n hyderus yn ei allu personol a'i allu i wella dros amser.

How does self-identity affect resilience?

Sut mae hunaniaeth yn effeithio ar wydnwch?

Graduation

Achieving goals

A healthy self-identity enables an individual to set realistic goals, and to achieve those goals. High self-esteem offers individuals the confidence to take risks and set ambitious targets for themselves. With a healthy self-image, individuals feel optimistic and hopeful about their likelihood of achieving goals. With that, they are more likely to persevere when obstacles arise.

For example: A woman who is struggling to get a job but who has a healthy self-concept is likely to persevere. This is because she is able to see rejections from potential employers as learning opportunities. Even if she might feel low for a short while, she is still optimistic towards the next opportunity around the corner.

Cyflawni nodau

Mae hunaniaeth iach yn galluogi unigolyn i osod nodau realistig, ac i gyflawni'r nodau hynny. Mae hunan-barch uchel yn rhoi hyder i'r unigolyn gymryd risgiau a gosod targedau uchelgeisiol i'w hun. Mae hunanddelwedd iach yn golygu bod unigolion yn teimlo'n optimistaidd ac yn obeithiol am y tebygolrwydd o gyflawni nodau. Oherwydd hyn, maen nhw'n fwy tebygol o ddal ati pan fyddan nhw’n dod ar draws rhwystrau.

Er enghraifft: Mae menyw sy'n cael trafferth dod o hyd i swydd ond sydd â hunangysyniad iach yn debygol o ddal ati. Mae hyn oherwydd ei bod hi'n gallu gweld gwrthodiadau gan ddarpar gyflogwyr fel cyfleoedd dysgu. Hyd yn oed os bydd hi'n teimlo'n isel am amser byr, mae hi'n dal i deimlo’n optimistaidd am y cyfle nesaf sy'n aros amdani.

Positive affirmations

Gosodiadau cadarnhaol

Positive affirmations are popular but they may not always reflect an individual’s reality. In order for positive affirmations to positively affect self-esteem, they need to feel believable and realistic.

They can be effective reminders for many individuals with low self-esteem if they are not too distant from their existing beliefs about themselves.

Mae gosodiadau cadarnhaol yn boblogaidd ond efallai nad ydyn nhw bob amser yn adlewyrchu realiti unigolyn. Er mwyn i osodiadau cadarnhaol effeithio'n gadarnhaol ar hunan-barch, mae angen iddyn nhw deimlo'n gredadwy a realistig.

I lawer o unigolion â hunan-barch isel, maen nhw'n gallu bod yn ffordd effeithiol o’u hatgoffa; cyn belled â’u bod yn weddol agos at yr hyn maen nhw’n ei gredu amdanyn nhw eu hunain.

Positive affirmations

Gosodiadau cadarnhaol

Positive affirmations are simple statements aiming to overcome negative thoughts and inspire individuals, however they may not always reflect an individual’s reality. In order for positive affirmations to positively affect self-esteem, they need to feel believable and realistic.

They can be effective reminders for many individuals with low self-esteem if they are not too distant from their existing beliefs about themselves.

Which of these positive affirmations are more likely to be effective for boosting self-esteem for an individual with low self-esteem? There are no correct answers but you must explain your choices.

Mae gosodiadau cadarnhaol yn osodiadau syml sy'n ceisio goresgyn meddyliau negyddol ac ysbrydoli unigolion, fodd bynnag, mae'n bosibl nad ydyn nhw bob amser yn adlewyrchu realiti unigolyn. Er mwyn i osodiadau cadarnhaol effeithio'n gadarnhaol ar hunan-barch, mae angen iddyn nhw deimlo'n gredadwy a realistig.

I lawer o unigolion â hunan-barch isel, maen nhw'n gallu bod yn ffordd effeithiol o'u hatgoffa; cyn belled â'u bod yn weddol agos at yr hyn maen nhw'n ei gredu amdanyn nhw eu hunain.

Pa un o'r gosodiadau cadarnhaol hyn sy'n fwy tebygol o fod yn effeithiol i roi hwb i hunan-barch unigolyn sydd â hunan-barch isel? Does dim atebion cywir ond rhaid i chi esbonio eich dewisiadau.

Believe in yourself
'We were born to be real not to be perfect'
'I feel successful when I do my best'
'I let go of fear. I let go of pain. I live in love.'
New beginnings excite me
Be the reason someone smiles today

Self-development

Hunan-ddatblygiad

Businessman

Developing personally and professionally can increase an individual’s self-esteem as they build on achievements and skills. This creates feelings of competence which enhances self-esteem.

It can be particularly helpful for individuals to focus on developing aspects of themselves that they like or already have some skills in. Building on core abilities improves confidence which positively impacts on self-esteem.

Gall datblygu yn bersonol ac yn broffesiynol gynyddu hunan-barch yr unigolyn wrth iddo adeiladu ar ei lwyddiannau a sgiliau. Mae hyn yn creu teimladau o gymhwysedd sy'n rhoi hwb i hunan-barch.

Gall fod yn ddefnyddiol iawn i unigolion ganolbwyntio ar ddatblygu'r agweddau personol maen nhw'n eu hoffi neu'r rhai y mae ganddyn nhw rai sgiliau ynddyn nhw yn barod. Mae adeiladu ar alluoedd craidd yn meithrin hyder ac mae hyn yn cael effaith gadarnhaol ar hunan-barch.

Self-development

Hunan-ddatblygiad

Woman celebrating new year

How do you engage in self-development? This might be through study, sports, practices or volunteering.

There are many aspects of ourselves (social, emotional, spiritual, physical) that can be developed throughout our lives.

  1. Create a list of the ways you are engaging in self-development.
  2. Create a second list of all the ways you would like to develop yourself.

Sut rydych chi'n ymwneud â hunan-ddatblygiad? Gallai hyn fod drwy astudio, chwaraeon, arferion neu wirfoddoli.

Mae sawl agwedd ar ein hunain (cymdeithasol, emosiynol, ysbrydol, corfforol) sy'n gallu cael eu datblygu yn ystod ein bywydau.

  1. Lluniwch restr o'r ffyrdd rydych chi'n ymwneud â hunan-ddatblygiad.
  2. Lluniwch ail restr o'r holl ffyrdd fyddech chi'n hoffi datblygu eich hun.

Low self-esteem

Hunan-barch isel

Sad girl

Take a compliment

When an individual has low self-esteem, compliments can make them feel uncomfortable. Many don’t know how to respond with modesty. It can be useful for them to practice accepting compliments with gratitude.

As this becomes easier, their self-esteem will become more robust. The positive feedback they receive from others can counter the negative assumptions they often make about themselves.

Self-compassion

The idea of an individual being compassionate towards themselves can be difficult to understand and cultivate but it is such an important factor in building self-esteem. A simpler way for an individual to think about it can be to encourage them to treat themselves as if they are a dear friend or family member, an individual that they care about very much. Ask them to consider how they would treat that other individual, if they were struggling or if things didn’t go to plan.

Derbyn geiriau o ganmoliaeth

Pan fydd gan unigolion hunan-barch isel, gall geiriau o ganmoliaeth wneud iddyn nhw deimlo'n anghyfforddus. Dydy llawer ohonyn nhw ddim yn gwybod sut i ymateb yn wylaidd. Gall fod yn ddefnyddiol iddyn nhw ymarfer derbyn canmoliaeth yn ddiolchgar.

Wrth i hyn ddod yn haws, bydd eu hunan-barch yn cryfhau. Gall yr adborth cadarnhaol byddan nhw'n ei dderbyn gan eraill wrthsefyll y rhagdybiaethau negyddol maen nhw'n aml yn eu gwneud amdanyn nhw eu hunain.

Hunandosturi

Gall y syniad bod unigolyn yn trin ei hun yn dosturiol fod yn anodd ei ddeall a'i feithrin ond mae'n ffactor mor bwysig wrth feithrin hunan-barch. Un ffordd haws i unigolyn feddwl am hyn yw ei annog i drin ei hun fel ffrind annwyl neu aelod o'r teulu, unigolyn sy'n golygu llawer iawn iddo. Gofynnwch iddo/iddi ystyried sut fyddai'n trin yr unigolyn arall, petai ef/hi yn mynd drwy gyfnod anodd neu os nad oedd pethau'n mynd yn ôl y disgwyl.

Case study

Astudiaeth achos

Emma received a phone call. She didn’t get the job. She thought she messed up in the interview but she really hoped they would like her anyway.

Emma felt the weight of disappointment.

Immediately, her mind turned to what she did wrong. She threw mean, spiteful words at herself – stupid; awkward; pathetic.

Then came the negative predictions – I’ll never get a job; I’ll never be a success; I’ll always be a disappointment.

Derbyniodd Emma alwad ffôn. Doedd hi ddim wedi cael y swydd. Roedd hi'n meddwl ei bod hi wedi gwneud llanast o'r cyfweliad ond roedd hi wir yn gobeithio y bydden nhw wedi ei hoffi beth bynnag.

Roedd y siom yn pwyso ar Emma.

Ar unwaith, dechreuodd feddwl am y pethau roedd hi wedi eu gwneud yn anghywir. Taflodd eiriau cas, sbeitlyd at ei hun – twp; lletchwith; pathetig.

Yna daeth y rhagfynegiadau negyddol – Wna i byth gael swydd; Fydda i byth yn llwyddiannus; Fydda i bob amser yn destun siom.

QuestionCwestiwn Your ResponseEich Ymateb

Perhaps the narrative would be changed to, “I didn’t get this job. I could have prepared better. I will do better. I will get other jobs, even if it takes time.

Efallai gellid newid y naratif: “Wnes i ddim cael y swydd hon. Gallwn i fod wedi paratoi'n well. Rydw i am wneud yn well. Rydw i am gael swyddi eraill, hyd yn oed os bydd yn cymryd amser.”

Go online

Ewch ar-lein

Browsing the internet

There is a vast offer of online resources, film clips and exercises that can be useful for improving self-esteem and self-image.

Here is an example of an article and TED talk on self-esteem https://ideas.ted.com/5-ways-to-build-lasting-self-esteem/.

(Tip: Looking online: make sure that what you are watching or reading online is from a reputable source)

Mae llawer iawn o adnoddau, clipiau ffilm ac ymarferion ar-lein fyddai’n gallu bod yn ddefnyddiol i wella hunan-barch a hunanddelwedd.

Dyma un enghraifft o erthygl a sgwrs TED ar hunan-barch https://ideas.ted.com/5-ways-to-build-lasting-self-esteem/.

(Awgrym: Edrych ar-lein: gwnewch yn siŵr bod y pethau rydych chi'n eu gwylio neu eu darllen ar-lein yn dod o ffynhonnell ddibynadwy)